## You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

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## Description

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car. The garage offers you a lease deal and two different options for purchasing the car. You are completely indifferent among these cars except for their costs. Once you have decided which car to take, you will __always__ take the same car again at the end of its useful life. The pre-tax residual value (salvage value) for the car at the end of its useful life is equal to (100 / *n*) % of the purchase price, where *n* is equal to the lifetime of the car. All cars are fully depreciated according to its lifetime on a straight-line basis with no half-year convention. The discount rate is 7% and the tax rate is 20%. Assume that you pay the price of the car up front, and the annual costs at the end of the year. The costs of leasing occur at the end of each period. (*For example, if you purchase Car B, you pay $18,000 in year 0 and $1,000 in year 1, year 2, etc. If you lease car A, you pay $4,650 in year1, year 2, etc.*) Note: consider all relevant cash flows for this problem.You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

__ Lease A Purchase B Purchase C__

Purchase price — $18,000 $45,000

Total annual costs^{*} $4,650 $900 —

__Lifetime of the car 3 years 5 years 18 years__

* Includes all __after-tax__ costs like fuel, wear and tear, maintenance, etc.

Using the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) method, which of the cars should you decide to drive always?

__ANSWER:__

First find the relevant cash flows associated with each purchase option:

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

__Purchase B: __

Depreciation tax shield = 20% × $3,600 = $720

After-tax salvage value = $3,600 – 20% × $3,600 = $2,880

PV_{B} = 18,000 + $16,684.64

*EAC _{B}* Þ 16,684.64 Þ

*EAC*$4,069.23

_{B }=

__Purchase C: __

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

Depreciation tax shield = 20% × $2,500 = $500

After-tax salvage value = $2,500 – 20% × $2,500 = $2,000

PV_{C} = 45,000 + $39,378.73

*EAC _{C}* Þ 39,378.73 Þ

*EAC*$3,914.74

_{C }=

Purchase C has the lowest cost per year (note that the lease is already in $ per year).

__Problem 2:__

You are thinking about investing your money in the stock market. You have the following two stocks in mind: stock A and stock B. You know that the economy can either go in recession or it will boom. Being an optimistic investor, you believe the likelihood of observing an economic boom is two times as high as observing an economic depression. You also know the following about your two stocks:

State of the Economy |
Probability |
R_{A} |
R_{B} |

Boom | 10% | –2% | |

Recession | |
6% | 40% |

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

- Calculate the expected return for stock A and stock B
- Calculate the total risk (variance and standard deviation) for stock A and for stock B
- Calculate the expected return on a portfolio consisting of equal proportions in both stocks.
- Calculate the expected return on a portfolio consisting of 10% invested in stock A and the remainder in stock B.
- Calculate the covariance between stock A and stock B.
- Calculate the correlation coefficient between stock A and stock B.
- Calculate the variance of the portfolio with equal proportions in both stocks using the covariance from answer e.
- Calculate the variance of the portfolio with equal proportions in both stocks using the portfolio returns and expected portfolio returns from answer c.

__ __

__ __

__ANSWER__

__ __

- p(boom) = 2/3 and p(recession)=1/3 (Note that probabilities always add up to 1)

E(R_{A}) = 2/3 × 0.10 + 1/3 × 0.06 = 0.0867 (8.67%)

E(R_{B}) = 2/3 × -0.02 + 1/3 × 0.40 = 0.12 (12%)

- b) SD(R
_{A}) = [2/3 × (0.10-0.0867)^{2}+ 1/3 × (0.06-0.0867)^{2}]^{5}= 0.018856 (1.886%)

SD(R_{B}) = [2/3 × (-0.02-0.12)^{2} + 1/3 × (0.40-0.12)^{2}]^{0.5} = 0.19799 (19.799%)

- Portfolio weights: W
_{A}=0.5 and W_{B}=0.5:

E(R_{P}) = 0.5 × 0.0867 + 0.5 × 0.12 = 0.10335 (10.335%)

- Portfolio weights: W
_{A}=0.1 and W_{B}=0.9:

E(R_{P}) = 0.1 × 0.0867 + 0.9 × 0.12 = 0.11667 (11.667%)

- COV (R
_{A},R_{B}) =

2/3 × (0.10-0.0867) × (-0.02-0.12) + 1/3 × (0.06-0.0867) × (0.40-0.12) = –0.0037333

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

- f) CORR(R
_{A},R_{B}) = –0.0037333 / (0.018856 × 0.19799) = –1 (Rounding! Remember the correlation coefficient cannot be less than –1)

- VAR(R
_{P}) = 0.5^{2}× 0.018856^{2}+ 5^{2}× 0.19799^{2}+ 2 × 0.5 × 0.5 × –0.0037333 =

–0.008022

SD(R_{P}) = 8.957%

- E(R
_{P}|Boom) = 0.5 × 0.10 + 0.5 × -0.02 = 0.04 (4%)

E(R_{P}|Recession) = 0.5 × 0.06 + 0.5 × 0.40 = 0.23 (23%)

Hence, E(R_{P}) = 2/3 × 0.04 + 1/3 × 0.23 = 0.10335 (10.335%)

And, SD(R_{P}) = [2/3 × (0.04-0.10335)^{2} + 1/3 × (0.23-0.10335)^{2}]^{0.5 }= 0.08957 (8.957%)

__Problem 3:__

You are thinking about a portfolio where you put half your money in stock A (see problem 2) and half your money in the risk free asset (like a Treasury bill). The risk free asset has a return of 5%.

- What is the variance and standard deviation of the risk free asset?
- What is the covariance between stock A and the risk free asset?
- What is the expected return on your portfolio?
- What is the variance on your portfolio?
- What is the standard deviation on your portfolio?

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

__ANSWER__

__ __

- By definition they are both zero (0).
- Again, by definition the answer is zero (0)
- Portfolio weights: W
_{A}=0.5 and W_{F}=0.5:

E(R_{P}) = 0.5 × 0.0867 + 0.5 × 0.05 = 0.06835 (6.835%)

- VAR(R
_{P}) = 0.5^{2}× 0.018856^{2 }= 0.0000889 - SD(R
_{P}) = 0.0000889^{5}= 0.009428 (0.9428%)

__Problem 4:__

*Frozen Fruitcakes International Inc*. is considering the following project. They want to introduce a new line of pastries and desserts. The sales for this division are expected to be $500,000 per year for each of the next 3 years. For this expansion you are able to use some of your existing machines that are currently not being used. Four years ago you paid $250,000 for these machines and the current market value of the machines is $110,000. You have been using a 5-year straight-line full depreciation on these machines. There is no need to buy any additional equipment. Variable costs for the division are projected at 65% of sales. Fixed costs are 100,000 per year. Total net working capital requirements are $75,000 at the start, $100,000 in year 1, and $50,000 in year 2. Net working capital will be recovered at the end of three years. The tax rate is 34%.

- What is the cash flow from assets for this project in each year?
- What is the NPV of this project if the discount rate is 10%?
- If
*Frozen Fruitcakes International Inc*. is expected to pay a dividend of $1.45 next time, and the dividends are expected to grow at 4.5% forever, what is the cost of equity (or required rate of return on equity) for*Frozen Fruitcakes International Inc*. if the current stock price is $29. (*Hint: you do not need any information from part a. or the previous page for answering this question*). - If
*Frozen Fruitcakes International Inc*. has 10% debt in its capital structure, with a YTM of 6%, what is the weighed cost of capital,*R*, for_{WACC}*Frozen Fruitcakes International Inc*.? - What is the NPV of the new project if it has the same risk as
*Frozen Fruitcakes International Inc*. as a whole? (Use the information in*c*. and*d*.) - Assuming the dividend-growth model you used in part
*c*. is correct, and the return on the market portfolio is 13% and the risk-free rate of return is 2%, what*must*be the beta of this project? (*Hint: use the CAPM or SML*)

__ANSWER__

__ __

- Cash Flow = Operating Cash Flow – Net Capital Spending – Additions to Net Working Capital

Operating Cash Flows for each year are EBIT+ Depreciation – Tax. Given that the firm does not purchase any new equipment, there are no incremental depreciation expenses from operating activities:

EBIT = $500,000 – 325,000 – 100,000 = $75,000

Tax = 0.34 × 80,000 = $25,500

Operating Cash Flow = $75,000 – 25,500 = $49,500 per year.

Opportunity Cost (in place of Net Capital Spending) = $110,000 – tax

Tax = 0.34 × Profit, where Profit = Market Value – Book Value.

Book Value = $250,000 – 4 × 50,000 (Depreciation per year) = $50,000

Profit = $110,000 – 50,000 = $60,000 and Tax = 0.34 × $60,000 = $20,400

Opportunity Cost = $110,000 – 20,400 = $89,600

Cash Flows:

Year | OCF | NCS*^{)} |
Additions NWC | Cash Flow |

0 | – | -89,600 | -75,000 | -164,600 |

1 | 49,500 | – | -25,000 | 24,500 |

2 | 49,500 | – | +50,000 | 99,500 |

3 | 49,500 | – | +50,000**^{)} |
99,500 |

*^{)} Opportunity Cost

**^{) }Recovery of NWC

- NPV = -164,600 + 24,500 / (1.1) + 99,500 / (1.1)
^{2}+ 99,500 / (1.1)^{3}= $14,659.96 - P
_{0}= D_{1}/ (R_{E}–*g*), hence we have R_{E}= D_{1}/P_{0}+*g*

Û R_{E} = 1.45/29 + 0.045 = 0.095 (9.5%)

- R
_{D}= 6% before tax, and hence (1-0.34) × 6% = 3.96% after-tax.

R_{WACC} = 0.1 × 3.96 + 0.9 × 9.5 = 8.946%

- If the project has the same risk as the overall firm, we can use the R
_{WACC}as the discount rate:

NPV = -164,600 + 24,500 / (1.0985) + 99,500 / (1.0895)^{2} + 99,500 / (1.0895)^{3} = $18,649.51

- From the CAPM model we have: 0.08946 = 0.02 + b
_{project}× [0.13 – 0.02]

b_{project} = 0.63

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

__Problem 5:__

Consider the following information about two stocks where the probability of an economic boom is 40%:

Economic State |
Return A (R_{A}) |
Return B (R_{B}) |

Boom |
38% | 6% |

Recession |
–4% | 12% |

- Calculate the expected return for stock A and stock B.
- Calculate the standard deviation of stock A and stock B.
- Calculate the correlation between stock A and stock B.
- Calculate the total risk (standard deviation) of a portfolio, where 1/8 of your money is invested in stock A, and 7/8 of your money is invested in stock B. (Hint: use both the method with the formula for the risk of a portfolio (i.e., using the covariance) and the method of calculating the variance (and standard deviation) from the portfolio returns.
- Calculate the expected return on a portfolio with equal proportions in the risky assets, and 30% in a risk-free asset. (Tip: Use your answer in d to find out what the rate of return is on a risk-free asset).

__ You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car__

__ANSWER__

__ __

- p(boom) = 0.4 and p(recession)=0.6 (Note that probabilities always add up to 1)

E(R_{A}) = 0.4 × 0.38 + 0.6 × -0.04 = 0.128 (-12.8%)

E(R_{B}) = 0.4 × 0.06 + 0.6 × 0.12 = 0.096 (9.6%)

- b) SD(R
_{A}) = [0.4 × (0.38-0.128)^{2}+ 0.6 × (-0.04-0.128)^{2}]^{5}= 0.20576 (20.576%)

SD(R_{B}) = [0.4 × (0.06-0.096)^{2} + 0.6 × (0.12-0.096)^{2}]^{0.5} = 0.02939 (2.939%)

- COV (R
_{A},R_{B}) =

0.4 × (0.38-0.128) × (0.06-0.096) + 0.6 × (-0.04-0.128) × (0.12-0.096) = –0.006048

CORR(R_{A},R_{B}) = –0.006048 / (0.20576 × 0.02939) = –1 (Rounding! Remember the correlation coefficient cannot be less than –1)

- Portfolio weights: W
_{A}=0.125 and W_{B}=0.875:

VAR(R_{P}) = 0.125^{2} × 0.20576^{2} + 0.875^{2} × 0.02939^{2} + 2×0.125×0.875×–0.006048 = 0

SD(R_{P}) = 0% (Risk Free Portfolio)

Alternatively,

E(R_{P}|Boom) = 0.125 × 0.38 + 0.875 × 0.06 = 0.10 (10%)

E(R_{P}|Recession) = 0.125 × -0.04 + 0.875 × 0.12 = 0.10 (10%)

Now it is much easier to see that this is a risk-free investment.

- Portfolio weights: W
_{A}=0.35 and W_{B}=0.35, and W_{F}=0.3:

E(R_{P}) = 0.35 × 0.128 + 0.35 × 0.096 + 0.3 × 0.10 = 0.1084 (10.84%)

__ You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car__

__Problem 6:__

You are thinking about investing your money in the stock market. You have the following three stocks in mind: stock A, B, and C. You know that the economy is expected to behave according to the following table. You believe the likelihood of each scenario is identical (all states of nature have equal probabilities. You also know the following about your two stocks:

State of the Economy |
R_{A} |
R_{B} |
R_{C} |

Depression | -20% | 5% | –5% |

Recession | 10% | 20% | 5% |

Normal | 30% | -12% | 5% |

Boom | 50% | 9% | -3% |

- Calculate the expected returns for stock A, B, and C
- Calculate the total risk for stock A, B, and C
- Calculate the correlation coefficient between stock A and B
- Calculate the correlation coefficient between stock A and C
- Calculate the correlation coefficient between stock B and C
- Based on your previous answers, if you have to form a portfolio consisting of two stocks, which two stocks would you put in your portfolio in terms of risk reduction?
- What is the expected return of a portfolio with equal investments in stock B and C?
- What is the covariance between the returns of the portfolio in part g. and those of stock A?
- Based on your previous answer, does it make sense to add stock A to the portfolio? Why?
- Calculate the expected return of a portfolio with equal investments in stock A and in the portfolio from part g.?
- What is the total risk of this portfolio?
- How can you tell that you have improved your risk-return tradeoff relative to the individual investments in A, B, and C?

__ANSWER__

__ __

- a) E(R
_{A}) = 0.25 × -0.20 + 0.25 × 0.10 + 0.25 ×0.30 + 0.25 × 0.50 = 0.175 (17.5%)

E(R_{B}) = 0.25 × 0.05 + 0.25 × 0.20 + 0.25 ×-0.12 + 0.25 × 0.09 = 0.055 (5.5%)

E(R_{C}) = 0.25 × -0.05 + 0.25 × 0.05 + 0.25 ×0.05 + 0.25 × -0.03 = 0.005 (0.5%)

- SD(R
_{A}) = 0.2586

SD(R_{B}) = 0.115

SD(R_{C}) = 0.0456 (All calculations are similar to the previous problems)

- CORR(R
_{A},R_{B})= –0.1639 - CORR(R
_{B},R_{C})= –0.1098 - CORR(R
_{A},R_{C})= +0.2441

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

- Stocks A and B should give you the biggest diversification benefit because their correlation is the lowest.

- E(R
_{P(B,C)}) = 0.5 × 0.055 + 0.5 × 0.005 = 0.03 (3%)

- First find the returns on the portfolio for each state of nature:

E(R_{P(B,C)}|Depression) = 0.5 × 0.05 + 0.5 × -0.05 = 0.0 (0%)

E(R_{P(B,C)}|Recession) = 0.5 × 0.2 + 0.5 × 0.05 = 0.125 (12.5%)

E(R_{P(B,C)}|Normal) = 0.5 × -0.12 + 0.5 × 0.05 = -0.035 (-3.5%)

E(R_{P(B,C)}|Boom) = 0.5 × 0.09 + 0.5 × -0.03 = 0.03 (3%)

Find the covariance between these returns and the returns for investment A:

COV(R_{A},R_{P(B,C)}) = 0.25 × (-0.2 – 0.175) × (0.0 – 0.03) +

0.25 × (0.1 – 0.175) × (0.125 – 0.03) + 0.25 × (0.3 – 0.175) × (-0.035 – 0.03) +

0.25 × (0.5 – 0.175) × (0.03 – 0.03) = –0.001

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

- It only makes no sense to add stock A if the correlation between stock A and the portfolio is equal to +1. Looking at the returns for these two investments, one can easily conclude that this will not be the case. Hence, adding stock A should further diversify the portfolio and should improve the risk-return tradeoff.

To calculate the correlation coefficient between the portfolio of B and C and stock A, we need to have the total risk of the portfolio with B and C first:

SD(R_{P(B,C)}) = [0.25 × (0.0 – 0.03)^{2} + 0.25 × (0.125 – 0.03)^{2} + 0.25 × (-0.035 – 0.03)^{2} +

0.25 × (0.03 – 0.03)^{2}]^{0.5} = 0.0595

CORR(R_{A},R_{P(B,C)}) = -0.001 / (0.2586 × 0.0595) = -0.065 (Adding stock A should definitely further diversify the portfolio)

- E(R
_{P(A,BC)}) = 0.5 × 0.175 + 0.5 × 0.03 = 0.1025 (10.25%)

- SD(R
_{P(A,BC)}) = [0.5^{2}× 0.2586^{2}+ 5^{2}× 0.0595^{2}+ 2 × 0.5 × 0.5 × –0.001] = 0.1308

- The risk-return trade-off can be calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV). This is defined as risk divided by expected return. A lower value for an investment implies a better risk-return trade-off.

CV(A) = 0.2856 / 0.175 = 1.478

CV(B) = 0.115 / 0.055 = 2.091

CV(C) = 0.0456 / 0.005 = 9.110

CV (BC) = 0.0595 / 0.03 = 1.983

CV (ABC) = 0.1308 / 0.1025 = __1.276__

Note that the portfolio of B and C has improved the risk-return trade-off relative to the those of the individual securities in the portfolio. Similarly, the portfolio of A, B, and C has improved the risk-return trade-off relative to all three individual securities in the portfolio.

__Problem 7:__

Using the CAPM (capital asset pricing model) and SML (security market line), what is the expected rate of return for an investment with a Beta of 1.8, a risk free rate of return of 4%, and a market rate of return of 10%.

__ You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car__

__ANSWER__

__ __

E(R_{i}) = R_{F} + b_{i} × (E(R_{M}) – R_{F})

E(R_{i}) = 0.04 + 1.8 (0.10 – 0.04) = 0.148 (14.8%)

__ __

__Problem 8:__

You know that an investment with a beta of 1 generates an expected return of 9%, you also know that another investment, which has a beta of 0, generates a return of 2%. What return can you expect on an investment with a beta of 0.75?

__ __

__ANSWER__

__ __

E(R_{i}) = R_{F} + b_{i} × (E(R_{M}) – R_{F})

__ __

E(R_{i}) = 0.02 0.75 (0.09 – 0.02) = 0.0725 (7.25%)

__ __

__Problem 9 (NOT GRADED):__

You are forming a portfolio, where you put a quarter of your money in small stocks with a beta of 2.8 and an expected return of 18%. You put half your money in large stocks with a beta of 1.8 and an expected return of 13%. You invest one eighth of your money in a well-diversified portfolio like the S&P 500 index with a beta of 1 and an expected return of 9%, and finally, one eight of your money is invested in risk free T-bills. The expected return on the T-bills is 4%.

- What is the expected return on your portfolio?
- What is the systematic risk (beta) on your portfolio?

__ANSWER__

__ __

- E(RP) = weighted average of the individual returns
- b
_{P}= weighted average of the individual betas.

__Problem 10 (NOT GRADED):__

What is the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) for a 12-year machine, with the following cash flows: purchase price upfront is $18,000; service costs are $2,000 in year 1 and growing at 5% per year. The appropriate discount rate is 9%.

- $75.54
- $3,006.30
**$5,037.97**- $18,075.54
- $36,075.54

** You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car**

__Problem 11 (NOT GRADED):__

Stock A has an expected return of 14.05% and a beta of 2.2. Stock B has an expected return of 7% and a beta of 1. What must be the expected return on a risk free asset?

- 1%
**125%**- 25%
- 5%
- 2%

__Problem 12 (NOT GRADED)__

Your stockbroker is trying to convince you that she has a system to beat the market. She explains that over the last 20 years, she has managed to realize a return that is on average 15% higher than the average return in the market. Her secret, she explains, is that she always uses the announcement of an earnings report as the time to buy shares in that company, and then sell these shares again immediately after the first subsequent dividend announcement. This is evidence that

- Markets are strong form efficient
- Markets are semi-strong form efficient
- Markets are weak form efficient
**Markets are***not*strong form and semi-strong form efficient- Markets are
*not*semi-strong and weak form efficient

You are deciding among three cars to use as a company car

__Problem 13 (NOT GRADED)__

You need a new computer system for your workplace. You are deciding between a more expensive system (A) with a price of $225,000, or a less expensive system (B) with a price of $150,000. The expected cash flows from these systems are:

__Year System A System B__

1 $80,000 $80,000

2 $25,000 $25,000

3 $25,000 $25,000

4 $25,000 $25,000

5 $25,000 $25,000

The after-tax salvage values in year 6 for these systems are respectively $115,000 for A and $30,000 for machine B.

Use the Internal Rate of Return Rule to decide when system A should be selected and when system B should be selected.