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What is referencing?
Whenever you write an assignment at university, you will probably be expected to use information from different sources to support and develop your thinking. Referencing is a standard practice used in academic writing to show your reader which ideas you have gathered from other sources and where those ideas came from.
Why do we reference?
It is important to show your reader that you have sought out expert, reliable sources to help support and develop your thinking, and this is done through referencing. The referencing in your assignment:
 demonstrates good research conduct
 shows the range of ideas and approaches you have found and thought about
 acknowledges the sources of those ideas
 tells your reader where they can locate those sources.
Referencing also helps you to avoid plagiarism. If you present someone else’s ideas as if they are your own work, or use the exact same language they use without acknowledgment, you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism can be unintentional due to poor referencing, but the consequences are always serious. Accurate referencing helps you to avoid this. For more information on avoiding plagiarism,
When do we reference
Every time you include words, ideas or information from a source – whether it’s a website, book or journal article – in your assignment, you must include an in-text reference to show that this content has been gathered from somewhere else. In-text references must be included whenever you:
 paraphrase someone else’s ideas in your own words
 summarise someone else’s ideas in your own words
 quote someone else’s ideas in their exact words
 copy or adapt a diagram, table or any other visual material.
For each source that you reference in-text, you must also create an entry in the reference list at the end of the assignment.What is referencing
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How do we reference?
There are two components to a Harvard reference:
1) an in-text reference in the body of your assignment
2) full reference details in your reference list
1) In-text references
An in-text reference is provided each time you refer to ideas or information from another source, and includes the following details:
 the author’s family name (do not include given names) /authoring body or organisation
 the year of publication
 page numbers where applicable.
There are two main ways to present an in-text reference, as shown below. One way gives prominence to the information by placing the reference at the end of your sentence in brackets:
Another way gives prominence to the author by placing the reference in the body of your sentence, with the author’s name incorporated into the sentence structure and the date in brackets:
Including page numbers
Page numbers are included when you:
 quote part of a source word for word
 summarise or paraphrase an idea from a specific page or pages
 refer to tables, figures, images or present specific information like dates/statistics.
If you do these things for a source without pages – e.g. a website – then just author and year will suffice.
Habel (2007, p. 48) notes that the novelist ‘draws on an established tradition of appropriating the wayang for various social and political purposes’.
Universities can play an active role in finding solutions for climate change (Filho 2010, p. 2).
Filho (2010, p. 2) argues that universities can play an active role in finding solutions for climate change.
Chabon (2008) explores a range of themes and ideas…
Chabon, M 2008, Maps and legends, McSweeney’s Books, San Francisco.
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2) The reference list
The reference list provides full bibliographic details for all the sources referred to in your assignment so that readers can easily locate them. Each different source referenced in your essay must have a matching entry in your reference list.
It is important to note that the reference list is not a bibliography. A bibliography lists everything you may have read, while a reference list is deliberately limited to those sources for which you have provided in-text references. A bibliography is not needed unless specifically requested by your lecturer.What is referencing
The reference list is titled References and is:
 arranged alphabetically by author’s family name (or title/sponsoring organisation where a source has no author)
 a single list where books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together (see sample reference list on p. 6 of this guide).What is referencing
The main elements required for all references are the author, year, title and publication information.
Judd, D, Sitzman, K & Davi, GM 2010, A history of American nursing: trends and eras, Jones and Bartlett, London.
Sandler, MP, Patton, JA, Coleman, RE, Gottschalk, A, Wackers, FJ & Hoffere, PB 1999, Diagnostic nuclear medicine, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
Whittemore, R 2009, ‘How can nursing intervention research reduce the research-practice gap?’, Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 7–15.
Leave space between each entry
No indentation required in second or subsequent lines of an entry
Single line spacing required
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An extract from an essay using the Harvard referencing system
Essay extract
… The literal adaptation of a book to film is practically impossible. As Stam (2005a, p. 4) suggests:
The shift from a single-track verbal medium such as the novel to a multi-track medium like film, which can play not only with words (written and spoken) but also with music, sound effects, and moving photographic images, explains the unlikelihood and … undesirability of literal fidelity.
It is puzzling, then, that readers and audiences are so critical of adaptations which take liberties, sometimes for the better, with their source material.What is referencing
Film adaptations of novels are frequently ‘castigated and held to an absurdly rigorous standard of fidelity’ (Stam 2005b, p. 15). If key scenes from a novel are pruned for film, audiences often react negatively. However, fidelity is not an appropriate measure for evaluating a film adaptation’s success, as numerous scholars concur (Desmond & Hawkes 2006; Leitch 2008; McFarlane 1996; Miller & Stam 2004). Judging film adaptations is ultimately, Whelehan (1999, p. 9) contends, ‘an inexact science dogged by value judgments about the relative artistic worth of literature and film’. A fan of a novel might denigrate a film adaptation which alters the original book in some fashion, but their response is highly subjective and fails to take into account the practices and realities of film production (McFarlane 2007, p. 26).
Sometimes there are grounds for hostility. Author Alan Moore has witnessed a number of his complex graphic novels adapted into shallow Hollywood products, making him extremely critical of filmmakers and the filmmaking process (Ashurst 2009). However, this kind of attitude can be knee-jerk and reactionary. Rather than being overly pedantic about textual faithfulness, it is best to approach film adaptations as re-interpretations of their source material (Hutcheon 2006, p. 8) or as ‘a permutation of text, an intertextuality’ (Kristeva, cited in Sanders 2006, p. 2). Moreover, new modes of production further complicate existing definitions of, and approaches to, adaptation (Moore, MR 2010, p. 180). So …
Comments
Always provide author, year and page number(s) when quoting.
Quotes longer than thirty words are indented both sides, and are one font size smaller. Ellipsis (…) shows one or more words have been omitted.
The letters ‘a’ and ‘b’ have been added to the years here and above to distinguish between different sources by the same author (Stam) published in the same year.
Several sources cited at once.What is referencing
Quotes shorter than thirty words are enclosed in single quotation marks.
Always provide author, year and page number(s) when paraphrasing a printed source.
Internet documents require the same information for the in-text reference (author and year). No page number for electronic sources unless available.
Quote from Kristeva found in Sanders’ work.
If authors have similar surnames, include first initials in reference to avoid confusion.
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References
Ashurst, S 2009, ‘Why Alan Moore hates comic-book movies’, Total Film, 2 February, viewed 5 December 2010, <http://www.totalfilm.com/features/exclusive-why-alan-moore-hates-comic-book-movies>.
Desmond, J & Hawkes, P 2006, Adaptation: studying film and literature, McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Hutcheon, L 2006, A theory of adaptation, Routledge, New York.
Leitch, T 2008, ‘Adaptation studies at a crossroads’, Adaptation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 63–77.
McFarlane, B 1996, Novel to film: an introduction to the theory of adaptation, Oxford University Press, New York.
― 2007, ‘Reading film and literature’, in D Cartmell & I Whelehan (eds), The Cambridge companion to literature on screen, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 15–28.
Miller, T & Stam, R (eds) 2004, A companion to film theory, Blackwell Publishing, viewed 30 October 2012, <http://www.scribd.com/doc/27285834/A-Companion-to-Film-Theory>.
Moore, MR 2010, ‘Adaptation and new media’, Adaptation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 179–92.
Sanders, J 2006, Adaptation and appropriation, Routledge, New York.
Stam, R 2005a, ‘Introduction: the theory and practice of adaptation’, in R Stam & A Raengo (eds), Literature and film: a guide to the theory and practice of film adaptation, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, pp. 1–52.
― 2005b, Literature through film: realism, magic, and the art of adaptation, Blackwell Publishing, Malden.
Whelehan, I 1999, ‘Adaptations: the contemporary dilemmas’, in D Cartmell & I Whelehan (eds), Adaptations: from text to screen, screen to text, Routledge, London, pp. 3–19.
Online newspaper or magazine article
Book with two authors-what is referencing
Book
Journal article
Two works by same author, listed chronologically
Dash used when more than one work by same author listed
Chapter in an edited book
Ebook. Two editors
Journal article
Book from which Kristeva’s quote taken
Two works by same author in same year, listed a and b based on alphabetical order of title of the work
Dash used when more than one work by same author listed
Chapter in an edited book-what is referencing
Please note: this extract is from an assignment written in the Humanities. Please refer to published work in your area of study for examples of referencing conventions specific to your discipline.
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What if your source does not exactly match any of these examples?
This guide provides examples of Harvard references for different types of sources. Find the type of source you need to reference in the pages that follow, and construct your reference in that format using the example(s) provided to guide you.
While this guide provides a wide range of examples, it is not possible to provide a model for every type of source you might use in your assignments. If you cannot find an exact match for the type of source you need to reference, find examples for similar sources and combine the elements to create the reference you need. For instance, the reference below is for a chapter in an edited document which was found online in PDF form. It has been created through combining aspects of the following types of references:
 a chapter in an edited book
 an online document in PDF form.
If you cannot find comparable reference types, always identify the following components of the source, and arrange them in the order below:
• author, editor, or authoring body/organisation
• year of publication
• title
• publication information.
Druckman, P 2012, ‘The integrated reporting journey’, in C Van der Lugt & D Malan (eds), Making investment grade: the future of corporate reporting, United Nations Environment Programme, Deloitte and the Centre for Corporate Governance in Africa, pp. 25–28, viewed 4 December 2012, <http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/news_events/upcoming/RioCSF/partner_deliverables/Making_Investment_Grade.pdf >.
Author/authoring body
Year of publication
Title of the chapter
Editors
Title of online document
Publisher
Internet address (URL)
Date the document was viewed
Page numbers of the chapter
Developed by Language and Learning Advisers and Librarians What is referencing
Harvard referencing UniSA – Examples
Print
Includes any materials created for publication in paper form
Book Basic format: Author’s family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Book with 1 author (this can include a person or an authoring body, e.g. a sponsoring organisation)
Chabon (2008, p. 108) discusses…
…was discussed in the study (Chabon 2008, p. 108).
…a better world (Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, p. 5).
Chabon, M 2008, Maps and legends, McSweeney’s Books, San Francisco.
Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, Capital idea: realising value from environmental and social performance, Deni Green Consulting Services, North Carlton, Victoria.
Gordon, M 2009, Manual of nursing diagnosis, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Mass.
Author’s family name, followed by a comma and initial(s) of any given names, or authoring body.
Publisher, followed by a comma.
Year of publication, followed by a comma.
Title of book in italics, followed by a comma. Use upper case for the first letter in the title and lower case for the rest unless referring to names or places, i.e. Lawrence of Arabia.
Place of publication. If more than one place of publication is listed, give only the first listed. If there is another place with the same name, or if the place is little known, add the state or country (abbreviated), e.g. Texas, Qld, or Tully, Qld. Full stop at the end.
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Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Book with 2 or 3 authors
Campbell, Fox and de Zwart (2010, p. 46) argue…
…alternatives are preferable (Campbell, Fox & de Zwart 2010, p. 46).
Campbell, E, Fox, R & de Zwart, M 2010, Students’ guide to legal writing, law exams and self assessment, 3rd edn, Federation Press, Sydney.
When multiple authors’ names are included within your sentence (not in brackets) use the full spelling of ‘and’. When the authors’ names are in brackets or in the reference list, use ‘&’.
Book with 4 or more authors
As suggested by Henkin et al. (2006, p. 14)…
…has been suggested (Henkin et al. 2006, p. 14).
Henkin, RE, Bova, D, Dillehay, GL, Halama, JR, Karesh, SM, Wagner, RH & Zimmer, MZ 2006, Nuclear medicine, 2nd edn, Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia.
When there are 4 or more authors, only use the first author’s name in-text followed by the abbreviation et al. But include all names in the reference list.
Book with no date or an approximate date
This is emphasized by Seah (n.d.) when…
This is emphasised by Seah (c. 2005) when…
Seah, R n.d., Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.
Seah, R c. 2005, Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.
If there is no date use n.d.
If there is an approximate date use c. (this means ‘circa’ – Latin for ‘around/about’).
2nd or later edition of a book
Bordwell and Thompson (2009, p. 33) explain…
…components of filmmaking (Bordwell & Thompson 2009, p. 33).
Bordwell, D & Thompson, K 2009, Film art: an introduction, 9th edn, Mc-Graw Hill, New York.
The edition number comes directly after the title in the reference list.
Edition is not mentioned in-text.
Translated book-what is referencing
Kristeva (1995) has achieved great currency since its translation.
…is argued as the reason for this tension (Kristeva 1995).
Kristeva, J 1995, New maladies of the soul, trans. R Guberman, Columbia University Press, New York.
The translator’s name is not referenced in-text – it only appears after the title in the reference list.
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Edited book
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Edited (ed.), revised (rev.) or compiled (comp.) book
Morrison (ed. 2010) questions whether…
It is not clear whether this point supports his previous assertions (ed. Morrison 2010).
Morrison, D (ed.) 2010, The Cambridge companion to Socrates, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
When the editor’s name is included within your sentence (not in brackets) place ed. in the brackets following their name. When the editor’s name is in brackets, put ed. before their name.
Edited (ed.), revised (rev.) or compiled (comp.) book with 2 or 3 editors
Kronenberg, Pollard and Sakellariou (eds 2011) are interested in providing a framework for…
…is included in this framework (eds Kronenberg, Pollard & Sakellariou 2011).
Kronenberg, F, Pollard, N & Sakellariou, D (eds) 2011, Occupational therapies without borders: towards an ecology of occupation-based practices, vol. 2, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Edinburgh.
When editors’ names are included within your sentence (not in brackets) use the full spelling of ‘and’. When their names are in brackets or in the reference list, use ‘&’.
Note the use of ‘eds’ (no full stop) for multiple editors.
Edited book with 4 or more editors
In their collection of essays, Barnett et al. (eds 2006) explore…
…is explored throughout (eds Barnett et al. 2006).
Barnett, T, Bierbaum, N, Harrex, S, Hosking, R & Tulloch, G (eds) 2006, London was full of rooms, Lythrum Press, Adelaide.
When there are 4 or more editors, only use the first editor’s name in-text followed by the abbreviation et al. But include all names in the reference list.
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Chapter in an edited book Basic format: Author’s family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body year, ‘Title of chapter’, in Editor’s Initial(s) plus family name (ed.), Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication, pp. x–xx.
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Chapter in an edited book
Abbott (2010, p. 32) believes the horror blockbuster…
…influential theory (Naremore 2004, p. 11).
Abbott, S 2010, ‘High concept thrills and chills: the horror blockbuster’, in I Conrich (ed.), Horror zone: the cultural experience of contemporary horror cinema, I.B. Tauris, London, pp. 27–44.
Naremore, J 2004, ‘Authorship’, in T Miller & R Stam (eds), A companion to film theory, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, pp. 9–24.
Use the chapter author in your in-text reference.
In the reference list the editor comes after the chapter title and is preceded by ‘in’. Note the exception to the order of initials for editors– for chapters put the editor’s initial(s) before family name.
Burt, R 2010, ‘All that remains of the Shakespeare play in Indian film’, in YL Lan & D Kennedy (eds), Shakespeare in Asia: contemporary performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 73–108.
Author’s family name, followed by a comma and initial(s) of any given names, or authoring body.
Initial(s) and family name of the book’s editor, followed by (ed.) for one editor and (eds) for multiple editors.
Year of publication, followed by a comma.What is referencing
Title of the chapter in single inverted commas, followed by a comma. Use upper case for the first letter of the title and lower case for the rest unless referring to names or places.
Page numbers of the chapter, with an En dash (–) between the numbers. Full stop at the end.
Title of book in italics, followed by a comma. See details above for formatting book titles.
Publisher, followed by a comma.
Place of publication, followed by a comma. See details above for citing place of publication.
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Journal article Basic format: Author’s family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. x–xx.
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Journal article
O’Hara (2009, p. 1548) supports…
Wolff and Perry (2010, p. 296) note…
…marked trends (Wolff & Perry 2010, p. 296).
O’Hara, MJ 2009, ‘Flood basalts, basalt floods or topless bushvelds? Lunar petrogenesis revisited’, Journal of Petrology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1545–1651.
Wolff, H & Perry, L 2010, ‘Trends in clean air legislation in Europe: particulate matter and low emission zones’, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 293–308.
Follow the examples provided in the Books section re: varying number of authors.
Whittemore, R 2009, ‘How can nursing intervention research reduce the research-practice gap?’, Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 7–15.
Author’s family name, followed by a comma and initial(s) of any given names, or authoring body.
Title of the journal in italics, followed by a comma. Use capital letters at the start of all key words.
Year of publication, followed by a comma.
Title of the article in single inverted commas, followed by a comma. Use upper case for the first letter of the title and lower case for the rest unless referring to names or places.
Page numbers of the article, with an En dash (–) between the numbers. Full stop at the end.
Volume of the journal, followed by a comma.
Number of the issue, followed by a comma.
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Magazine article
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Magazine article
Giedroyc and Reed (2012, p. 25) compare…
…equivalent musicians (Giedroyc & Reed 2012, p. 25).
…living legend (McEachen 2011, p. 82).
Giedroyc, M & Reed, B 2012, ‘Was Lennon really a genius?’, The Spectator, 6 October, pp. 24–6.
McEachen, B 2011, ‘Dante on Dante’, Empire, no. 127, pp. 82–6.
Wolff, R 2012, ‘Warhol Warhol everywhere’, ARTnews, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 76–81.
Publication information will vary between magazines: some have volume and/or issue numbers, while others show the month or date of publication. See examples provided.
Magazine article with no author
The Economist (2012, p. 86) highlights…
…complex situation (The Economist 2012, p. 86).
The Economist 2012, ‘Reforming LIBOR: the $300 trillion question’, vol. 404, no. 8804, p. 86.
If a magazine article has no author, cite the magazine title as author.
Newspaper article
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Newspaper article
Westwood (2012, p. 15) states…
…in contemporary literature (Westwood 2012, p. 15).
Westwood, M 2012, ‘Welcome into an exclusive fold’, Australian, 4 September, p. 15.
Omit initial The in English language newspaper titles, e.g. The Australian.
Newspaper article with no author
The Australian Financial Review (22 October 2012, p. 46) examines…
…big change (Australian Financial Review 22 October 2012, p. 46).
Australian Financial Review 2012, ‘US comes to a turning point’, 22 October, p. 46.
If a newspaper article has no author, cite the newspaper title as author and include the specific date of publication in brackets in-text.
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Government publication
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) publication
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2010), the national…
…concerning figures (ABS 2010).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2010, Measures of Australia’s progress 2010, cat. no. 1370.0, ABS, Canberra.
If you cite the authoring body frequently in-text, introduce the organisation name in abbreviated form in brackets after the first citation. Use this abbreviation for subsequent citations, e.g. (HREOC 2012).
Government report
…valuable future strategies (Bradley et al. 2008, p. 39).
The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) (1997, p. 18) recommended…
…arrived at these recommendations (HREOC 1997, p. 18).
Bradley, D, Noonan, P, Nugent, H & Scales, B 2008, Review of Australian higher education, Australian Government, Canberra.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) 1997, Bringing them home: report of the national inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, HREOC, Canberra.
Legal publication
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Legislation: Acts, Ordinances, Regulations
…inconsistent legislation was overridden (Racial Discrimination Act 1975).
Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) (R 18+ Films) Amendment Act 2009 (SA).
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cwlth).
Cite in this format no matter where you found it. Do not include URLs for legislation found online.
Legal case
In the case of Mabo v Queensland (no. 2) (1992) 175 CLR1, it was…
Mabo v Queensland (no. 2) (1992) 175 CLR1.
Cite in this format no matter where you found it. Do not include URLs for cases found online.
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Patent or standard
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Patent
Gordon (2002) took out a patent on…
…design was patented (Gordon 2002).
Gordon, MC 2002, Sound muffling sleep mask, US Patent D465,234 S.
Standard
Standards Association of Australia (1996) provides…
…covering colours (Standards Association of Australia 1996).
Standards Association of Australia 1996, Colour standards for general purposes: chocolate, AS 2700S-1996 (X64), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
Dictionary, encyclopaedia or handbook (reference works)
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Dictionary or encyclopaedia without author(s) or editor(s)
The Hutchinson encyclopaedia (2007, p. 233) defines…
According to the Longman dictionary of contemporary English (2009, p. 152)…
For a standard dictionary with no core author(s) or editor(s), only cite in-text.
Dictionary or encyclopaedia with author(s) or editor(s)
Blackburn (2005, p. 66) describes…
… idiosyncratic filmmaker (Thomson 2010, p. 20).
Blackburn, S 2005, The Oxford dictionary of philosophy, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Thomson, D 2010, The new biographical dictionary of film, 5th edn, Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Cite specialist dictionaries or encyclopaedias with core author(s) or editor(s) like traditional books.
Handbook
Denzin (2011) advises…
…is advised (Denzin 2011).What is referencing
Denzin, NK 2011, The SAGE handbook of qualitative research, 4th edn, SAGE, Thousand Oaks.
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Conference paper or thesis
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Conference paper
(in published proceedings)
Johnson (2009, p. 143) identifies…
…praised his confidence (Johnson 2009, p. 143).
Johnson, L 2009, ‘”Nobler in the mind”: the emergence of early modern anxiety’, in P Goodall (ed.), Refereed proceedings of the 2009 AULLA conference: the human and the humanities in literature, language and culture, Australasian Universities Language and Literature Association, pp. 141–56.
To cite a whole book of conference proceedings, follow the format for citing an edited book.
Thesis
Savvas (2009, p. 8) offers…
…asset of virility (Savvas 2009, p. 8).
Savvas, MX 2009, ‘The crime novel as a vehicle for reconciliation’, PhD thesis, Flinders University, Adelaide.
Do not italicise thesis titles like standard books; instead, place them inside inverted commas.
Miscellaneous
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Pamphlet or brochure (ephemera)
Beyondblue (2010) suggests…
…exercise caution (State Crime Prevention Branch 2009).
Beyondblue 2010, Sleeping well, Beyondblue, Hawthorn West, Vic.
State Crime Prevention Branch 2009, Personal safety, South Australia Police, Government of South Australia, Adelaide.
As details will vary when it comes to brochures and pamphlets, try and extract as much information as you can re: authorship, publication details etc.
Lecture notes or slides
…valuable steps (Simic 2012).
Simic, Z 2012, ‘Annotated readings: approaching the task’, POLI 1014, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 7 August.
Verify with your tutor or course coordinator whether it is appropriate to cite lecture notes in your academic writing.
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Online (electronic)
Includes any materials created for publication online or electronically
Webpage or website Basic format: Author’s family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body year, Title of webpage or website, Website (if citing webpage) AND/OR Publisher if known, date viewed, <URL>.
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Whole website
The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2012) takes…
… main role (Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2012).
Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2012, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Australian Government, viewed 6 November 2012, <http://www.immi.gov.au/>.
Italicise the focal point of the reference: if citing a whole website, italicise the website title; if citing a specific webpage on a website, italicise the webpage and present the website name in plain font.
Single page on a website
…viable options (Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2012).
Department of Immigration and Citizenship 2012, Permanent visa options for doctors, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Australian Government, viewed 6 November 2012,
<http://www.immi.gov.au/skilled/medical-practitioners/permanent-visas.htm>. Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency 2012, Adapting to climate change, Australian Government, viewed 6 November 2012, <http://www.climatechange.gov.au/en/government/adapt.aspx>.
Author’s family name, followed by a comma and initial(s) of any given names, or authoring body.
The website’s title (if referencing a single webpage) in plain font followed by a comma, and/or the page/site’s publisher if known, followed by a comma.
Year of publication, followed by a comma.
Title of webpage or website in italics, followed by a comma.
Full internet address (URL) enclosed in angle brackets (< >). Full stop at the end. The URL should not be underlined or hyperlinked.
Date the page/site was viewed, followed by a comma.
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Online journal article
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Journal article accessed via a library database
Boon (2011) examines…
…potent subtext (Boon 2011, p. 181).
Boon, KA 2011, ‘Ethics and capitalism in the screenplays of David Mamet’, Literature Film Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 174–89.
When an article is accessed using an electronic database, reference it as a standard journal article (see Print section): do not include date viewed, URL, or refer to the database.
PDF version of a print journal article accessed via the internet (e.g. Google, Google Scholar, Muse, JSTOR)
Werstine (1999, p. 311) laments…
…inherently flawed (Werstine 1999, p. 311).
Werstine, P 1999, ‘A century of “bad” Shakespeare quartos’, Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 310–33.
When the article is a scanned PDF version of a print journal article that you found online, reference it as a standard journal article (see Print section). If unsure about its print or online origin, include date viewed and URL.
Journal article from an electronic journal’s own website
Blamires (2012) writes…
…in nursing (Murray 2012, p. 57).
Blamires, A 2012, ‘Homoerotic pleasure and violence in the drama of Thomas Middleton’, Early Modern Literary Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, viewed 11 November 2012, <http://extra.shu.ac.uk/emls/16-2/blammidd.htm>.
Murray, N 2012, ‘A report on a pilot English language intervention model for undergraduate trainee nurses’, Journal of Academic Language and Learning, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 48–63, viewed 7 December, <http://journal.aall.org.au/index.php/jall/article/view/135/128>.
When an article is accessed directly from the e-journal’s own website, include date viewed and URL. Note that conventions for volume, issue, and pagination may vary between online journals.
Developed by Language and Learning Advisers and Librarians © UniSA, January 2015 19
Online news item
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Article on a news website
Day (2012) suggests…
…marked trends (Day 2012).
Day, K 2012, ‘Can social media predict the US election?’, Telegraph, 5 November, viewed 7 November 2012, <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/us-election/9657081/Can-social-media-predict-the-US-election.html>.
Reference like a print newspaper article with date of publication, and also include date viewed and URL.
Article on a magazine-style website
Walsh (2012) forecasts…
…found it lacking (Williams 2012).
Walsh, B 2012, ‘Climate change and Sandy: why we need to prepare for a warmer world’, Time, 30 October, viewed 5 November 2012, <http://science.time.com/2012/10/30/climate-change-and-sandy-why-we-need-to-prepare-for-a-warmer-world/>.
Williams, MA 2012, ‘Romney’s concession speech was not gracious’, Salon, 7 November, viewed 10 November 2012, <http://www.salon.com/2012/11/07/romneys_concession_speech_was_not_gracious/>.
Reference like a print magazine article, and also include date viewed and URL.
E-book or online document
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
E-book accessed via the internet
Trochim (2006) maintains…
Trochim, WM 2006, The research methods knowledge base, 3rd edn, Web Centre for Social Research Methods, viewed 25 November 2010, <http://socialresearchmethods.net/kb/htm>.
Include viewing date and URL after standard publication information.
E-book accessed via a database
…important HR strategies (Armstrong 2012, p. 25).
Armstrong, M 2012, Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice, 12th edn, Kogan Page, London, viewed 26 November 2012, EBSCO Host.
Include the viewing date and database name/provider after standard publication information.
E-book accessed via an e-reader (e.g. Kindle)
Skloot (2010, ch. 7) notes the importance of…
…value of research (Cooper & White 2012, ch. 1).
Skloot, R 2010, The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks, Kindle, Random House, New York.
Cooper, K & White, RE 2012, Qualitative research in the post-modern era: contexts of qualitative research, Kindle, Springer, Dordrecht.
Include device type before publication information. When normal pagination is not present, cite chapter numbers (ch. ) or similar.
Developed by Language and Learning Advisers and What is referencing
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Online documents in PDF, Word or Excel form
…related to the university’s future (University of South Australia (UniSA) 2010, p. 7).
…striving for innovation (UniSA 2010, p. 12).
University of South Australia 2010, Horizon 2020, What is referencing, viewed 26 November 2012, <http://w3.unisa.edu.au/horizon2020/files/HORIZON_2020_highRes.pdf>.
Lucas, M 2011, Parallel collisions: 12th Adelaide biennial of Australian art, Art Gallery of South Australia, viewed 25 November 2012, <http://artgallery.sa.gov.au/agsa/home/Media/docs/Past_media_releases/2012_Adelaide_Biennial_Annoucement_MR_FINAL.pdf>.
If you cite the authoring body frequently in-text, introduce and then use an abbreviation for subsequent citations, e.g. (UniSA 2010).
Miscellaneous
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Systematic review (e.g. Cochrane Library)
Millward et al. (2009) review…
…was found in the review (Millward et al. 2009).
Millward, C, Ferriter, M, Calver, SJ & Connell-Jones, GG 2009, Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, art. no. CD003498, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003498.pub3.
Include the article number and the DOI. The URL is not needed in the reference list.
Electronic thesis
McVey (2011) argues…
…of morbidity (Foley 2011, p. 24).
McVey, P 2011, ‘A palliative approach for people with declining health living in hostel accommodation’, PhD thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney, viewed 8 January 2013, <http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/8141/1/P%2cMcVey%202011%20PhD%20Thesis.pdf>.
Foley, D 2011, ‘Emergency care of people with intellectual disability’, PhD thesis, University of South Australia, Adelaide, UniSA Research Archive.
Theses formerly housed in the Australian Digital Theses Collection are now accessible through the National Library of Australia’s Trove service.
Conference paper (in online proceedings)
…important claim (Johnson 2009).
Johnson, L 2009, ‘”Nobler in the mind”: the emergence of early modern anxiety’, in P Goodall (ed.), Refereed proceedings of the 2009 AULLA conference: the human and the humanities in literature, language and culture, Australasian Universities Language and Literature Association, pp. 141–56, viewed 7 December 2012, <http://aulla.com.au/AULLA%202009,%20Proceedings.pdf>.
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Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Email correspondence
Harper confirmed this by email on 2 November 2012.
Do not create reference list entries for emails: include all details in-text. Also get approval from the email’s author.
Social networking update (e.g. Twitter, Facebook)
In response to Eastwood’s jabs, Obama (2012) tweeted…
Obama, B 2012, ‘This seat’s taken’, BarackObama, Twitter, 31 August, viewed 5 November 2012, <https://mobile.twitter.com/BarackObama/status/241392153148915712>.
Messages posted to discussion boards, lists, newsgroups
Patterson (2009) acknowledged this in a posting on the…
Patterson, S <patters@rockets.com.au> 2009, ‘Something’s got to give’, list server, National Association of Sceptics, 29 January, viewed 7 September 2012, <http://www.nsa.net.au/listserv/>.
Identify the type of post (e.g. list server, blog post) after the title of post.
Put the title of post in single quotation marks and the name of the whole blog in italics.
Blog post
…clear concerns (de Zwart 2012).
de Zwart, M 2012, ‘NRL v Optus in the full federal court: victory for Telstra’, blog post, Bram’s pyre, 30 April, viewed 7 December 2012, <http://bramspyre.blogspot.com.au/2012/04/nrl-v-optus-in-full-federal-court.html>.
Developed by Language and Learning Advisers and What is referencing
Sound and Visual
Includes any materials created for film, television or audio. Please note in most cases you need to include the format of your source in your reference list entry.
Film or television
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Film (cinema release)
Django Unchained (Tarantino 2012) depicts…
Anderson, PT (dir.) 2012, The master, motion picture, Weinstein Company.
Tarantino, Q (dir.) 2012, Django unchained, motion picture, Weinstein Company.
Cite a film’s director (dir.) as main author. Where directors are not identified, cite the producer (prod.) or authoring company.
Film on DVD, Blu-Ray, videotape, iTunes etc
Hugo (Scorsese 2011) presents Méliès’ as…
Scorsese, M (dir.) 2011, Hugo, DVD, Paramount.
Television program
An episode of Dateline (SBS 2012) examines…
SBS 2012, Dateline, television program, SBS, 6 November.
Cite a program’s director (dir.) as main author. Where directors are not identified, cite the producer (prod.) or authoring company instead.
For TV transmissions, include channel and screening date in your reference list entry. If year of screening differs from the year of production, include year of screening in the screening date.
Episode of a television program/series
56 Up (Apted 2012) chronicles…
Apted, M (dir.) 2012, 56 up, ep. 2, television program, SBS, 6 November.
Coulter, A (dir.) 2010, ‘Paris green’, Boardwalk empire, television program, SBS, 3 November 2012.
Episode of a television program/series on DVD, Blu-Ray, videotape, iTunes etc
In season two’s penultimate episode ‘Blackwater’ (Marshall 2012), the…
Marshall, N (dir.) 2012, ‘Blackwater’, Game of thrones: the complete second season, DVD, HBO.
What is referencing
Miscellaneous
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
YouTube clip or program
A short video by the Business Writing Centre and Technology Centre (2008) provides…
…is discouraged (Business Writing Centre and Technology Centre 2008).
Business Writing Centre and Technology Centre 2008, Your writing, not someone else’s, video, YouTube, 23 January, viewed 25 November 2012, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQGBhZ0ov6o>.
Use this format for other online clips or programs from sites like Vimeo, Dailymotion et al.
Music recording on CD, iTunes etc
Palmer (2011) explores the theme of…
Palmer, A 2011, Amanda Palmer goes down under, CD, Liberator Music.
Podcast
…identified as his strongest works (McWeeny & Weinberg 2010).
McWeeny, D & Weinberg, S 2010, Motion/captured podcast: John Carpenter special, podcast, Hitfix, 26 October, accessed 11 November 2012, <http://www.hitfix.com/blogs/motion-captured/posts/listen-a-special-podcast-tribute-to-john-carpenter-with-guest-scott-weinberg>.
When podcasts are downloaded or streamed from iTunes, write iTunes instead of URL.
Radio program
…key concerns (Adams 2012).
Adams, P 2012, ‘Immigrant nations’, Late night live, radio program, ABC Radio, 10 October.
Lecture recording
…valuable steps (Simic 2012).
Simic, Z 2012, ‘Annotated readings: approaching the task’, POLI 1014, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 7 August.
Verify with your tutor or course coordinator whether it is appropriate to cite a lecture recording in your academic writing.
CD-ROM
…valuable tool (Oxford University Press 2010).
Oxford University Press 2010, Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, 8th edn, CD-ROM, OUP, Oxford.
Video game
Halo: reach (Bungie 2010), a prequel to…
Bungie 2010, Halo: reach, video game, Xbox 360, Microsoft Game Studios.
For most video games, cite the developing company as author.
Computer program
… program was developed (MathWorks 2010).
MathWorks 2010, MATLAB, ver. 7.11, computer program, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, Mass.
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Other
Includes miscellaneous materials
Type of reference
In-text reference examples
Reference list examples
Further information
Artwork (e.g. painting, sculpture)
Piccinini’s 2005 sculpture Big Mother, housed in the Art Gallery of South Australia, presents…
Works of art and live performances cannot be easily recovered by readers, so describe them in detail in-text instead of referencing.
Live performance (e.g. theatre, speech)
The State Theatre Company of South Australia’s 2012 production of In the next room; or the vibrator play drew…
Personal communication (e.g. letters, conversation)
… as reported in private correspondence on 31 October…
Do not create references for correspondence or conversations: describe in-text.
Image/diagram/artwork from a print source
Modes of support (Hussin 2007, p. 365).
Hussin, V 2007, ‘Supporting off-shore students: a preliminary study’, Innovations in Education Teaching International, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 363–76.
Cite the source where the image was located using the standard format for that source.
Image/diagram/artwork from an online source
Neil Armstrong (NASA 2008).
NASA 2008, Image of the day gallery: a man on the moon, NASA, 23 March, viewed 27 November 2012, <http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_369a. html>.
Cite the source where the image was located using the standard format for that source.
Map
According to the map of the region (Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovations Queensland 2010) there are…
Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovations Queensland 2010, Queensland’s mineral, petroleum and energy operations and resources, Department of Mines and Energy Queensland, Brisbane.
If the map is derived from an Atlas, cite the Atlas in standard book format.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Generic websites
Tailored online materials
Email service
In-country programs
CD-Roms
Online language courses
Video, book + WebCT
LAS in-country staff
Number of Institutions
Modes of Support
Unrate
d
Not
Effectiv
e
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Frequently asked questions
1. How do I reference two or three authors?
When there are two or three authors for a reference, include all their family names in the in-text reference, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. Use the word ‘and’ to separate surnames in the body of your sentence, and ‘&’ to do so in brackets.
2. How do I reference more than three authors?
If there are four or more authors, you should only use the first author’s family name in the in-text reference followed by the term ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation for ‘and others’).
However, all the authors’ names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source.
3. How do I reference when there is no author and/or no year?
When no person is mentioned, include the title of the source or the authoring/sponsoring organisation in place of the author.
When no year of publication is given, use the abbreviation n.d. which stands for ‘no date’ in place of a year, or give an approximate year preceded by a c. which stands for ‘circa’. However, be wary of using sources without years as it is harder to verify whether the information is relevant or outdated.
4. How do I reference information from one author (Author 1) which I have found in a book or journal article by another author (Author 2)?
Sometimes you will need to refer to authors whose work you encounter secondhand (i.e. mentioned in other people’s work) rather than firsthand. You should mention both authors (Author 1 and
Wahlstrom and Quirchmayr (2008) advocate for this system.
According to Campbell, Fox and de Zwart (2010, p. 11), students should tread carefully when using internet resources.
Students should tread carefully when using internet resources (Campbell, Fox & de Zwart 2010, p. 11).
This is observed by Solomon et al. (2008) in their climate change study.
Oral presentations, like written assessment tasks, should contain an introduction, body, and conclusion (Learning and Teaching Unit 2010).
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Author 2) in your in-text reference, but would only list the actual item you read (Author 2) in your reference list.
For example, if you read an idea by Bate (Author 1) in a source by McInnis (Author 2) you would need to mention both authors in your in-text reference.
However, in the reference list you should only list McInnis (Author 2, the source you read) and not Bate (whose idea you read about in McInnis).
5. How do I reference multiple sources by the same author published in the same year? If an author has published more than one item in the same year, place a lower case letter of the alphabet next to the dates in your in-text referencing to distinguish between these separate publications.
You must also include these lower case letters in your reference list entries as well. The order in which you attach the letters should follow the alphabetical order of the titles of these sources.
6. What if there are two authors with the same family name?
Occasionally you will need to reference two different authors who share the same family name. To avoid ambiguity, include the authors’ first initials after their family names in the in-text references.
7. How do I present exact quotations?
Short quotations of fewer than thirty words should be enclosed in single quotation marks (‘…’) and be accompanied by an in-text reference including a page number where possible. If you are referencing an online source without page numbers, just author and year will suffice.
Longer quotations of more than thirty words should be presented without quotation marks and indented on both sides. A font one size smaller should be used.
Bate (cited in McInnis 2010, p. 13) states that…
…is more important (Bate, cited in McInnis 2010, p. 13).
Stam argues this point eloquently (2005a) and reiterates it elsewhere (2005b).
Shakespeare’s play ‘uses the technique of externalisation to anatomise an inner emotional struggle’ (Smith, E 2007, p. 17).
Lacan’s work grounds ‘personal identity and its discontents in language’ (Smith, B 2010, p. 6).
Research indicates that ‘over a thousand autobiographies of childhood have been published in roughly the past fifteen years’ (Douglas 2010, p. 1).
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The three dots after the word ‘promise’ (called an ellipsis) show that a word or words have been left out.
Always introduce or transition into quotations using your own words to maintain the flow of your writing.
If you quote another source directly without adding quotation marks (for short quotes) or indenting it as a block quote (for long quotes), this may be identified as plagiarism.
8. Where exactly do I put the full stop when quoting and/or referencing?
Full stops must always be placed at the very end of a sentence, after the quotation and/or in-text reference.
9. Can I reference two or more sources at the same time?
Yes. Use a semi-colon to separate the items in the in-text reference, and list the items alphabetically according to their authors’ family names.
If referencing multiple sources by the same author, present the items in chronological order (oldest to most recent) and separate them with commas.
10. Can I paste the URL of a webpage into my essay as an in-text reference?
No. Harvard is an ‘author-date’ system. Follow the author-date in-text referencing conventions for all sources. If you are unsure how to reference a website because there is no author or year provided, follow the guidelines provided above for referencing sources without authors or years (FAQ 3).
According to Barnett (2009, p. 219):
While some authors respond to the rise of technologies in the lives of humans by articulating anxieties through figures such as the mad scientist, or tropes such as the destruction of civilisation, others see in technology a promise … of new and exciting ways of being and expressing the human in the face of co-evolution with technology.
Research indicates that ‘over a thousand autobiographies of childhood have been published in roughly the past fifteen years’ (Douglas 2010, p. 1).
According to Barnett (2009, p. 219), several authors see technology as providing ‘new and exciting ways of being and expressing the human in the face of co-evolution with technology’.
Social networking has had a major impact on young people (Body & Ellison 2007; Hansford & Adlington 2009; Lenhart & Madden 2007).
Buzan (2005, 2006, 2007) is a mind-mapping expert and enthusiast.
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11. How do I reference a reprint of a book?
In the case of a reprint of a book, use the year of publication, not the year of the reprint. This is because reprint means the content has not changed so the same edition is being used. However, if the book is revised, then the year of the revision is used as the content has changed in some way.
12. How do I reference family names with a prefix?
Family names containing prefixes such as de, van, von or De, Van, Von should be listed in the reference list under D and V respectively. Thus if the author’s name is Melissa de Zwart, her name would appear in the reference list under d (for de Zwart, M) not Z (for Zwart, MD). Also keep the prefix as part of the surname in-text.
13. How do I reference a name with a suffix?
If a name contains a generational suffix such as Junior, do not include the suffix in-text but identify it in your reference list.
Similarly, names containing generational suffixes such as II, III, or IV should be referenced as above.
14. How do I reference hyphenated names?
If an author’s family name is hyphenated, include the hyphen in your referencing.
If the given name is hyphenated, include the hyphen in your reference list.
de Zwart (2012) notes…
de Zwart, M 2012, ‘NRL v Optus in the full federal court…
…depiction of war (Vonnegut 1966).
Vonnegut, K Jr 1966, Mother night…
…ethical considerations (Smith 2012).
Smith, GP II 2012, Law and bioethics: along the mortal coil…
…economic considerations (Pitt-Watson 1991).
Pitt-Watson, D 1991, Economic short termism…
…existential considerations (Sartre 1944).
Sartre, J-P 1944, No exit…
What is referencing
29
Useful links and information
Bibliographic management software
Bibliographic management software such as RefWorks and EndNote enables you to establish and store your own database of references and insert them into your assignments using various styles.
There is further information about this software in the EndNote and RefWorks Research Guides available from the UniSA Library homepage > Research > EndNote or RefWorks.
The version of the Harvard style used in RefWorks is not the same as the version outlined in this guide. RefWorks users can choose the Harvard style and add the following note to their assignment:
You can download a Harvard-UniSA style for EndNote, which does match the version illustrated in this guide, from the EndNote Research Guide (Library homepage > Research > EndNote).
Always check any references you import or manually add to your bibliographic management software.
Roadmap to Referencing
The Roadmap to Referencing website is an interactive tool designed to help you select your reference format and arrange your reference ingredients.
http://roadmap.unisa.edu.au
L3 referencing website
Visit the L3 referencing website to learn more about referencing, academic integrity, avoiding plagiarism and more.
http://www.unisa.edu.au/Referencing
Referencing forum
If you have a referencing question that these resources have not answered, post it to the referencing forum and a Language and Learning Adviser will help you find your answer.
https://lo.unisa.edu.au/mod/forum/view.php?id=289100
You be the judge
View the video You be the judge: learning to evaluate, available from the library’s website, to help you decide if your sources are academic quality.
http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/learn/tutorial/evaluate/default.aspx
This reference list has been compiled using the RefWorks version of the
Harvard author-date system.