. Using definitions presented in class/class materials, distinguish between economic growth and development (in more than one sentence). (10 points)
Economic growth is the increase or rise of total output in a country. This is the increase in real GDP, which means it includes all the increase goods and services within a nation. However, economic development is the quantitative and qualitative increase or change in the living standards of the people in a nation.
- Discuss how the land, natural resource, and climate issues we have covered would impact growth, and how they would impact development, explaining why these impacts would be different, or if they would be the same. (30 points)
Land, natural resources, and climate play a major role in economic growth and development of any nation. There are countries that depend on agriculture as their main source of foreign exchange. For such nations, land, natural resources, and climate can have a great impact on economic development of the pertained countries. For instance, favorable climate, fertile land, and abundant natural resources mean that the country will have increased production of crops and harvested natural resources like minerals and oil. This will lead to economic growth since there will be increase in total GDP of the country. Similarly, increase in production of natural resources like minerals, timber and oil will lead to economic growth. When their quantities increase, the nation will experience an increase in GDP, which leads to economic growth. Land, natural resources and climate can also lead to economic development. This will be a result of improvement in both quantitative and qualitative increase in the output. Economic development occurs when the increase in output is evenly distributed among the citizens of a country and as such, people have more purchasing power. They will therefore, make the citizens to have better standards of living. The impact of increase in output due to better and utilization better climate and increase in extraction of natural resources does not necessarily translate to economic development since for economic development to occur there must be noticeable increase in people’s living standards.
- Discuss the merits and deficiencies (pros and cons) of at least two (competing) map projections, and then make a case for why the study of geography should be about more than cartography. That is, identify other aspects of geography and explain why they are important for people to study. (30 points)
The three major types of map projections are cylindrical, conic and azimuthally.
Cylindrical map projections
Cylindrical map projections conserve the angles of longitudes and latitudes. In this case, the right angles are not altered and remain as right angles, making it smooth to navigate by coordinates. Additionally, cylindrical maps are suitable for visualizing globe and comparison of latitudes.
One disadvantage of cylindrical maps is that they alter the size of the object. For instance, when one moves to south or north globe, the land tends to get bigger. Greenland will appear to be the size of Africa on a cylindrical map. Additionally, cylindrical maps tend to alter the shape of objects like land, water and distance making it a challenge when it comes to estimating navigation time.
Conic map projections
To begin with, conic map projections are ideal for aeronautical maps as well as polar areas.
Since comic maps are prone to distortions as the size of object increase, they are not suitable for presenting large areas. This is the reason as one moves away from the line that intersects the earth, the probability of distortion increases.
Geography should be more than just cartography
The study of geography should be more than cartography since cartography revolves around the study of presentation of the earth and its features on a flat surface by using maps. On the other side, the study of geography focuses on the study of earth as a home for human beings. Therefore, geography should use cartography in presentation and analysis of earth.
In studying the earth as a home of humans geography is concerned with the study of the land, features of the land and its inhabitants as well as the natural phenomena. Geography is divided into two branches namely, human geography and physical Geography. Physical geography revolves around the study of natural features and how they affect human beings. Therefore, features such as climate and natural features are studied and how they affect human beings. On the other hand, human geography is concerned with the study of processes and how they influence human society. For instance, it covers political, economic, and cultural aspects of the society.
- Choose a model of economic growth and/or development presented in the Hosseini article or class slides, and discusses how it would change if the issues we discussed related to human resources played a more central role in the model. Note, your response should emphasize and detail the human resource issues, more than the model. (30 points)
My choice of mode is the Harrod-Domar Growth Model. This model explains development based on two factors, productivity of investment and savings. According to this model, an increase in salaries and wages paid to workers will lead to economic growth since people will be able to purchase more goods and services in the market. This will result to increase in GDP. On the other hand, when the morale of workers to work is low, they will not be productive. This will result to a decrease in output. When human resources like skills of laborers are improved then there will be increase in output since the more trained the workers the higher their productivity. This will lead to increase in output and improvement in services delivered as well as output. Therefore, better skills leads to more both quantitative and qualitative improvement output resulting to economic growth and economic development. Finally, the number of workers in the market affects the model. When the labor force increases then there is an increase in output, people are able to save and invest more resulting to economic growth.
- Political leaders and religious leaders are concerned with climate change in developing countries like Haiti where Haiti’s Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Rural Development (MARNDR) formulated the National Agricultural Investment Plan. It highlights importance of domestic food security, economic recovery and social stability by raising house hold incomes and promoting agro-enterprice development. International organizations are aiming at helping rural households plan better for the changes in environment. Religious leaders are tailoring projects such as Catholic Relief Services Agriculture for Basic Needs Projects in Central America and Mexico to help solve the problems.
- The women in Uganda are facing numerous challenges on land ownership as shown by Cheryl Dos and her team on Feminist economies. 80% of the land in Uganda is held under customary law that is unregistered, long term tenants ‘the Mailo’, public tenure applies to public land and leaseholders are protected under lease laws. All this factors have collectively denied Ugandan women the chance to own a land of their own and even limits them to land usage. The laws of the land also do not provide for spousal consent. A husband cannot ask his wife when he decides to sell a family parcel of land; neither does a brother ask his sister. They are also not protected from land grabbing. The women also engage in small economic activities allowed by the society and can therefore not afford to purchase land. The government favors more land acquisition by private foreign companies than the landless women. In the Volta region of Ghana, women face the same issues of land grabbing and owning by Multinational corporates that own land. This women however decided that theirs was going to be a different story and joined hands as Africa Faith & Justice Network (AFJN) and Ghana’s Volta Region Paramount Queen Mothers Association held a conference on land Grab awareness and prevention at the House of Chiefs in the region’s capital Ho. AFJN’s Policy Analyst Ntama Bahati delivered the keynote address.
- The challenges for economic development include scarcity and non-renewability. Scarcity in of water in some regions especially those that face long bouts of drought is limiting economic development as factories cannot be set in such areas as they need water to run their operations. The local community also focuses all its energies towards finding the scant resource and therefore little time is set apart for other economic activities. The Tragedy of the Common is negative as learned in class, as exploration is done without regard because they are answerable to no one in particular in their harvesting. Non-renewable resources also slow down economic development when they are depleted all of a sudden. The opportunities are numerous when the natural resource is in abundance. The opportunities include job creation, improvement and creation of amenities thus improving an area in general.
- 8.? What are the problems with tourism? Be able to discuss specifics about Moreno’s case studies.