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Three circles of English 148 Three distinct types of speech fellowships of English, phases of spread of the language, and particular characteristics of the uses of the language acquisition and innovations.
“big C” culture 148 Culture described in terms of literature, art, music, etc.
“small c” culture 149 Culture based on behavior and attitudes and the social knowledge that people use to interpret experience.
target culture 149 The cultures of inner circle countries.
international target culture 149 Is the mixture of Inner- and

Outer-Circle countries

source culture 149 The students’ culture.Three circles of English
culture of learning 149 The use of CLT to teach ELT effectively.
global reasons 149 The use of English as a communication tool globally, to promote internationalism, accessing global information and gaining access to higher learning.
local reasons 149 Reasons that focus on the use of English for daily living such as communicating locally with foreigners in work and social situations.
strengths of local bilingual teachers 151 The ability of local teachers to understand their student’s first language and culture and teaching them English effectively.
World Englishes 152 Other legitimate types of English.
ELF 152 English being used as a lingua franca, the common language of

choice, among speakers who come from different linguacultural


locally defined ELF 153  A way of making EIL instruction easy through choices of units of analysis, objectives, content, teaching strategies, resources, models, etc. are all based on carefully considered local needs for English including its international uses.
regionally specific non-local tasks 154 Tasks that are irrelevant in the instruction of English to the locals.
genre 155 Social practices [understood by all members of our social group or

Culture] that have evolved to enable us to achieve our goals. As we go about our daily lives, we engage in numerous situations that involve predictable and recurring patterns of language use, without which our interactions would be random and chaotic.

communicative strategy 155 Strategies that can be associated with effective communication in business, regardless of whether the speaker/writer is a native or non-native speaker.
four types of EIL proficiency 157 EIL proficiency that is internationally effective, nationally effective, locally proficient, and ineffective.
needs analysis 159 The systematic collection and analysis of all subjective and objective information necessary to define and validate defensible curriculum purposes that satisfy the language learning requirements of students within the context of the particular institutions that influence the learning and teaching situation.
situational needs 160 The local situational components of the teaching-learning process.
student learning outcomes 160 These are comparatively precise statements of the content or skills the students will know or be able to use at the end of the course.Three circles of English


  1. Key points from Ch. 9 Author:  Brown


  • Choosing the target culture or language

English is not the most spoken in terms of numbers in inner circle countries but is the most globally recognized language.

  • Getting to know why people use English

There are two reasons, local use of English for daily interaction and working with foreigners.

Global use of English as a globalization tool and fostering unity between different countries

  • What should be in the English curriculum?

Old standards must be done away with, more WE must be considered.

  • Dealing with the issues in the curriculum

The teachers first need to understand the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of their students for effective teaching.

  • The future of the curriculum

The EIL curriculum has a brighter future where the English standards will be based in how other countries use English other than it used in inner circle countries.