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The period from early to mid-1700 forms a crucial part of the history of America and in particular California



The period from early to mid-1700 forms a crucial part of the history of America and in particular California-Chapter 4 discusses several northern colonies including New England, New France, and the Middle colonies. These regions have certain similarities and differences that make each one of them unique. Part of the New England colonies included Massachusetts Bay Colony, Connecticut Colony, and New Hampshire. After reading chapters 3 and 4, it emerges that different reasons led to the emergence of English colonies along the eastern seaboard. The core historical theme that led to the establishment of the New England colonies was religious persecution that was rampant in England. Chapter 3 points out that Plymouth Colony that existed in present-day Massachusetts was founded by English Puritans that the book refers to as Pilgrims.

The image below depicts the killing of Father Luis Jayme in 1775. It highlights the fact that religious persecution was a major issue in not only the Northern colonies but in southern colonies as well. Although the majority of Puritans and Quakers were escaping from such animosity by moving from England to America, it is expected that they continued the vice by regrouping themselves according to their religion. As such, they could have faced hostility from the American natives. Middle colonies, on their part, were founded as trade centers. However, some territories provided a haven for those facing religious persecutions including Quakers. New France colonies, on the other hand, consisted of territories colonized by France.

The three northern colonies were different based on their demographics. The New England colonies, as pointed out above, seemed attractive to Puritan settlers. Since the Middle colonies were predominantly trading centers, they attracted all European migrant groups including Russians, Germans, and French. From chapter 4, it is clear that colonial economies developed in line with the prevailing environments of the colony. Intense lumbering, fishing, and subsistence farming were practiced in New England. These colonies were similar to the Middle colonies that practice mixed economies. Apart from merchant shipping, farming was also practiced here.

From the information gathered from the textbook, the three Northern colonies had different government systems. In New England, colonies were subject to the Crown. However, they had the freedom to set up local governments. The New France colonies, on the other hand, were fully subject to the French King. They were denied the political right and did not have political representatives. In the Middle colonies, however, the system of government in place allowed for the democratic election of the legislature. Therefore, if I had a choice, I would live in the Middle colonies because the political system there would quickly address my need or wants as a settler.

Question 4

The period from early to mid-1700 forms a crucial part of the history of America and in particular California. During this period, significant political, economic, and cultural changes happened. Chapter five of the textbook discusses Mexican Independence in great depths. Most of these changes were associated with Spanish. Although they had visited the region in 1542, they started to solidify their hold on California in the 1700s. This marked the start of a period in which the repeopling of California took place. One social change that happened during that time is that the native population was Mexicanized. Spanish became the primary language of communication while the natives were converted to Catholicism.

Eighteenth-Century America experienced a tremendous expansion of its economy in decades after the establishment of Spanish settlements from the 1700s. By 1830, huge ranches had already been established and were the main source of income for most Spanish speaking populations in California. The development led to the emergence of a new culture as cattle raising as well as the marketing of related products including beef and hides became the central pillars of the economy. Socially, the end of the Spanish mission systems began towards mid-1700. By 1823, the last mission had been established. Before this, Spain’s American colonies started to agitate for independence. When Mexico got its independence, new policies were introduced allowing Californians to trade with foreigners. Apart from impacting the economy of Spanish colonies, the policy changes the social set up of these regions since it allowed foreigners to hols land upon being naturalized.

Mexican Flag from 1821 to 1823

The development highlight above opened an avenue for immigration that served to replace the population. Due to the remoteness of some of the colonies including California, however, immigration was greatly impeded.  The figure below shows the Mexican Flag from 1821 to 1823. The history of Eighteenth-Century America cannot be told without mentioning the role played by Spanish before and after Mexico had gained its independence.

After Mexico had gained independence from Spain in 1821, former Spanish colonies including California became exposed to American penetration, both socially, economically, and politically. Restrictive policies were relaxed, mission lands were redistributed, and immigration procedure liberalized. As a result, immense wealth was brought into the region by traders. As Americans started to move into the colonies, the stage was set for the total takeover from the Spanish. While the Spanish emphasized minimal colonization and hispanization of Native Americans, the population that flocked into the colonies in the years that followed were land-hungry immigrants. As a result, the emphasis on the removal of native Americans and replication, a development that ushered in another major social change among native populations.

Question 5

Chapter 4 contains detailed descriptions of life in California in the 1700s. From the information presented in the chapter, it is clear that Spain started California missions with the aim of not only expanding the European territory but also converting Native Americans into Catholicism. However, it appears that Spain, the country that was responsible for and funded the missions, had another motive of colonizing the North American cost along the pacific. This view is made based on the fact that apart from sending Franciscan missionaries to California, the Spanish king also sent military troops to this region. Apart from protecting the missionaries, the troops served to ensure that California did not fall into the hands of other powers such as Britain or France.The period from early to mid-1700 forms a crucial part of the history of America and in particular California

Through mission work, Spain tremendously impacted natives, both in religion and culture. In chapter four, it is noted that although the missions were controlled by Spain, most of the participants were Native Americans. Additionally, it was through the missionary work in California during the 1700s, that political and trade networks started to emerge. For instance, as Father Serra erected missions along the coast, towns began to grow adjacent to those missions. This was a huge milestone given that the entire region had not witnessed such developments before. The mission work done during 1700 laid the foundation for present-day California. Cities such as Los Angeles and Santa Clara owe their origin to the work done by Spanish missionaries.

The picture above depicts the Mission of San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo as it appeared on in 1792, November. In the foreground, a huge and tall cross is evident. The picture points out an important attribute of California during the 1700s: emphasis on faith and in particular, Christian faith. It is evident that the region was controlled by missionaries and there was an emphasis on the conversion of Native Americans into Catholicism. Interestingly, the Spaniards failed to cultivate a good relationship between them and the Native Americans. While Spanish missionaries considered them as heathens, the soldiers, on the other hand, abused them as objects meant for subjugation or killing.

California in the 1700s is different from other British colonies that existed during the same period. For instance, while most British colonies came into existence through the Royal Charter, the settlements in California came into being through Crown-sponsored conquests. Unlike in British colonies which were largely non-Catholic, Settlers that occupied California during the 1700s were exclusively Catholics. Moreover, early California colonizers were mainly soldiers and missionaries. In other colonies, settlers included middle-class farmers, tradesmen, and artisans. In chapter four, it emerges that California had a governor who had been appointed by the crown. Other colonies had representative assemblies and local governments. Therefore, California has a different strand of the history of America.The period from early to mid-1700 forms a crucial part of the history of America and in particular California