Teachers’ use of technology in science supports student knowledge.
Technology literacy has been the most fundamental across all walks of life. In the classroom set up the PhD students have been on persuasion to transfer knowledge to teachers in the easiest way possible to enable them comprehend. This will also provide the space for teachers to offer the same to the students. The teachers will be able to create a direct impact by applying technological literacy in teaching the science disciplines. Such disciplines are deemed to be a little difficult to comprehend but the dons can ensure that the teachers get the simplest skills to transfer to student for purpose of enhancing their understanding.
The teacher educators are also deemed to have enough and sufficient knowledge on the technological literacy whose primary objective is to enhance the students understanding in science disciplines. Therefore there is need for in-depth research on how to expand knowledge and understanding on scientific technology literacy by professors and others researchers in the field. High quality of professionalism breeds content of high quality that is essential to the students. In depth understanding from the top that is to say the professors to the secondary school teachers will help students differentiate various instructions that emanate from teaching. Students will be able to distinguish between the technological instructions and literacy instructions at appropriate times.
The objective of this studies was to investigate how the scientific technological materials help in creating an impact towards the enhancement of understanding among the students. Precisely this study advocates for technological literacy to advance comprehending capabilities among the Kenyan people. The main purpose of this study stems from the need to enhance student understanding through the use of technology. The main goal stands out to be finding ways of enhancing student understanding by equipping teachers with best technological resources to advance that goal thus attaining technological literacy. Revolution has been rampant in the recent past and technology has proven to be the hallmark of change. My interest emanates from the mere fact that revolution is on course and hence is applied in all areas across the divide. Education is not an exemption. Therefore teachers are deemed to be equipped with such knowledge that can be transferred to students. Technology in its widest nature tends to imply the advancement that has been in the computer world. This means that it will include all the equipment and the machinery that may have been developed through the utilization of the scientific knowledge. Therefore being a stakeholder in the education sector there is need to incorporate technology in our science subjects to boost student knowledge. Most students in our schools are products of the digital error hence adapting to such a curriculum will be easier, safer and faster for them. This will also help us teachers as a significant component of stakeholders in the education sector. The schedules have been tight over the years in the school curriculum. Inculcating technology in the sector will be a primary step that will ensure that all which ought to be done in a pre-specified period is attained. By the time the technology expert learners get to the middle class they should possess high ability to comprehend technological scientific data. This is only possible through technology as students can easily access all the materials that ought to be covered by teachers in due time. However, it has proven to be expensive even though its benefits are unquestionable. Most students get a platform to interact with their teachers through e-learning portals, and this builds more confidence in students. They tend to help a lot and as a result, end up showing better results compared to their previous performance. It in this regard that I find it necessary to be in the quest of doing more research just to inquire if my experience cuts across the board. It is time we expand the ways of boosting and supporting the student knowledge through technology. With the vast resources they the world owns it is only fundamental that we utilize to ensure that our students obtain the best from what we deliver to them. It only by way of making them custodians of knowledge that will enable them to view issues from a broader spectrum and impact the society positively.
A descriptive multicase study design was employed to track teachers’ development over the year long program. Data included interviews, surveys, classroom observations, teachers’ technology integration plans, and action research study reports. The program was found to have positive impacts to varying degrees on teachers’ development. Contextual factors and educators reasoning were influenced by the ability of the teacher to enact what they had learned in most programs that are in the classroom setup. Suggestions for designing effective professional development programs to improve science teachers’
This study will be of value to all stakeholders in the education sector within our country and also a point of references to other researchers who might be interested in the topic. The government will be able to roll out basic resources that will help empower the student and establish a proper knowledge base within the learning institutions. The appropriate ways that will help boost the student understanding while using the technology and the challenges that hinder the understanding of students while using technology. Schools themselves and teachers will also be able to know the specific areas that are productive to the students while using the technology. This will help them capitalize on the important aspects of technology that will help them improve quality and enhance understanding among the students in the schools and colleges. The unnecessary costs will also be scraped off saving the schools income and provide them an avenue of utilizing the saved mount in some other investments that might be beneficial to the company. However, education inculcated with technology has grown over the years hence broader. Previous research posits that the sector has been impactful to the student knowledge. According to (Clark, 2010) technology was meant to offer lessons to the students hence having the capability of taking instructions from the lesson thus opportunity to learn. My desire for this topic emanates from the fact that people have developed a misconception in technology and how it impacts education. For far too long there is a fallacy that has been forced into peoples mind that technology has successfully created a digital conversation in our classroom set up. People tend to forget that the principal aim of technology is to ensure that students understanding has been set at its best. This is the only yardstick for determining the relevance of technology in learning especially the science disciplines. My desire also stems from the fact that technology has been widely availed to the people and how familiar it has been to the teachers. The expertise within the teacher fraternity is very fundamental in ensuring that the students get motivated in incorporating technology in their academic affairs. This tendency will help the students familiarize themselves with such systems and hence they will have an in-depth understanding of how the systems work. Technology on its side has been of great benefit to the education fraternity. It has boosted more knowledge among the children especially in involving them in computer games that really help them get the spellings and pronunciations of words in various disciplines of their studies including science. This has immensely reduced the children could waste doing non constructive things. This interest has even grown more to the students at higher levels. This is as a result of technology making the world appear as if it is a global village. Therefore cases of students not conducting their research as a result of having outdated literature content has been pulled out of space. It is becoming more interesting that with the inception of the internet students can easily advance their research and make presentations in due time. The internet gives a broader content and easy to use than some the catalogues that have been set in some of our learning institutions. This broad content creates an opportunity for every student to present a comprehensive paper and have a deeper understanding of the concept on the topic of study. Everyone connected to the internet with equipments that are internet enabled can access the same content simultaneously. This allows students to share the same information on a larger scale compared to the books that could be hectic and occupy a lot of space on the students’ desk. The portability of such learning materials, when carried physically, becomes a significant barrier to some students. Therefore the presence of technology has saved thousands of students from that mess as they can easily carry their gadgets to the class which is loaded with all the content without any difficulty. Furthermore, studies reveal that there has been a high student turn out in most academic institutions. This comes as a result of the advancement in the sector through technology. Most students are able to improve their performance in class and this has really encouraged those students who had given up because of their dismal performance in class. This is a clear indication that students are beginning to understand what is being taught in class. They tend to grasp most of the concepts as technology has made it easier to read from anywhere of your comfort without one necessarily having the knowledge that you are reading for something as technological gadgets have been brought into play. The technological error has also twisted the mode of study, and now more and more students are enrolling for the distance learning classes as e-learning takes shape in our society. This is preferred as most students are now capable of studying in the school of their choice from any place that they live. The long and complicated procedures involved in applying for the distance education have been eventually cut off. Processes have been made more simple easy and precise. The online systems are more user-friendly for learners to comprehend and use. This saves more time and money. Time as resource plays a very significant role in our lives. There is always need to utilize it so that we could achieve other goals that pertain nation building. This helps both parties in the learning environs. Since a teacher can interact online with their students and respond to the queries that they pose in the quest to enhance their understanding. This, however, has some limitations as you will find students who have understood the concept getting out of context and start asking irrelevant questions. But schools are trying to set up proper control measures to curb this. Quality control departments which have professionals that have the expertise to track such weird behaviors that are prohibited by the rules and regulations that are set by the learning institutions.
In-depth understanding in the student learning has been taken to a higher notch through the use of technology. This is evidence by students and teachers impressing the science of teleconferencing. This typically operates in the form of web seminars. The high amount of expenditure that could have been imposed on the transportation costs and other direct costs that accompany preparation and attendance of workshops. The web technology has made it possible for the students to interact with the best instructors from all points of the globe. This has facilitated understanding among children since it creates a window for the students communicate with their colleagues on the cloud or through video conferencing. Teachers too can teach various students through the world by engaging the students through video conferences. By them receiving some concepts from the best minds, they tend to have a perception that the concept has been made easier hence easily understood. In some scenarios in the disciplines such as astronomy, bodies such as NASA have provided students a platform to interact with astronomies and inquire anything that they would wish to know in that discipline. Such moments are quite memorable, and the teachers can always have recaps for such sessions to make the students understand what the astronomist was saying even better. This will enable the student grasp and understand even further.
Some learning sites such as Glovica have provided space for both students and teachers learn some foreign language. This eases the capability of one understanding if the content is delivered in the language that they understand most. Since it will be easier for them to make analysis and deeper inquiries on the subject of discussion and be content with the feedback. It is even advantageous for teachers as it creates for them a platform to seek greener pastures at better pay. This motivates even more teachers to use technology in transferring knowledge to their students. Such teachers have the ability of handling a larger student base with diverse cultural and language background since they understand the language such people speak. They do not need interpreters hence attend directly to the needs of the student without unnecessary interference from external sources
Technology has been widely applied in most learning institutions. Both teachers and students have benefited from the revolution that has come with technology. The digital error has been on the rise, and such generations are here to stay with the technological advancement. The effect of technology on both students and teachers level of comprehending. Technical topics in the school setups have been widely written by other researchers. But there still exists some gaps in the previous studies that have already been made. One of the primary deficiencies evidenced includes the realization of the impact of technology in enabling students to understand a particular subject of discussion. Technology has been applied widely in the education sector, but still, there are no reports on its impacts in helping the student understand. This study seeks to find out how the impact of technology in science assists in boosting understanding in the students. This study seeks to find out to out how teachers use technology in science to boost the knowledge of the student, establish the impact of technology on the student understanding, determine what motivates teachers and students use technology, and determine the efficiency technology in the learning institutions. This study might be limited by the fact that there are very few parameters that have been set forth to measure the student capacity to understand what the teacher has taught using technology. One can not tell if the student understood the concept through studying various materials form the library, or he took upon the facts as laid down in the internet hence technology. Another key challenge might come up when differentiating the difference between understanding and cram. If the performance of the students is only measured by way of responding to questions in the examination centers and classrooms, then we might be deceived to think they have understood and yet they have only crammed. Such concepts never last in peoples mind especially if they have crammed. Therefore this has paused a great setback that we might encounter during our studies. However, a detailed analysis and review will be conducted to ensure that the objectives of the studies have been put into consideration. According to Darrell M. West (2013) posits that Thomas Edison theory and perception failed entirely on matters pertaining technology. He alleged that Thomas Edison had projected that within the ten years of his study books would have been rendered obsolete. It’s unfortunate that it is more than a century since Thomas made his research but very minimal has changed in our class room set up. For a technology that will create the impact of students, understanding needs the government which is the greatest stakeholder in this sector. Through government intervention and appropriate strategies set forth, technology will undoubtedly take its course in most of our learning institutions and thorough analysis on how it has impacted o the students should be made with the immediate effect. According to Darrell M. West and Joshua Bleiberg (2013) schools are deemed to adopt technologies that can give empowerment to teachers. It is in this regard that the best interest of the student will be addressed hence achieving the optimum goal of student understanding. They allude that the databases for various schools should always be updated so that they have the capacity of tracking what rides well with their teachers and which technologies do not correspond with the needs of their teachers. The technology that do not work well with the teachers should be identified and set aside since they are already rendered unworkable. They further posit that various technological aspects should be included in the teacher’s work plan for the sake of enabling them to attend to their students while prepared hence contributing to the understanding of the students. Platforms such as face book, twitter, and snap chat are also some of the channels that the students can use during their discussions and where they tend to disagree or get uncertain they can use the very platforms to seek clarification from their teachers. Such platforms can create more room for comments and teacher-student interaction where issues of the students could be handled on a timely basis especially in scenarios where teachers have included the technological component in their work plan. This will also reduce the physical material that most teachers carry from one class to another. Darrel (2013) reveals that best technologies that work best for teachers’ hence increasing student understanding in the sciences are those which allow the teacher engage fewer resources during his or her duty. These will reduce confusion to students, and they will always get it right from the get-go.
Sciences have been some of the disciplines in the education curriculum with difficulty in the assessment. Through technology, such an assessment has been made much easier since evaluation is done online. According to Harry J. Holzer & Sandy Baum (2017), this will help fast track the students’ performance on work on her weaker areas. Over the period the teacher will be able to analyze whether the corrections initiated by him or her and the students have yielded any fruits. Moreover, the online evaluation system has proven to be cheaper than the paper system which involves a lot of labor, and one can easily loose track of analysis he or she was doing. Furthermore, such online evaluation portfolios are rich in formats hence can take any preference of the teacher in the quest to track the student performance. Some of the forms the collection can take include videos, other interactive features, and music among others.
Research unveils that to enhance the student knowledge through the use of technology, and then the teachers have to adopt technology in their policy plan. This is one of the best strategies that motivate proper work plan. It gives teachers an opportunity to have their schedule priorities so that they don’t deviate from their major plans as they would have already been listed as priorities. When priorities remain in the scheme, then the implementation face is definitely going to be a walk in the park. This is because the teacher would have already budgeted for the technology hence prioritized it thus easy for him or her to carry on with it. Setting common standards for teaching various disciplines across the divide. This makes it very easy for the students to understand with the emergence of technology. This really boosts the performance of students in the science disciplines across the board as difficult things would have been made easier.
- What impact does technology have on the scientific literacy?
- Why do you think teachers and students are motivated to incorporate technology to enhance their scientific literacy?
This section represents the research methodology that will be adopted and followed by the researcher in the process of conducting the study. It, therefore, focuses on the following research design, population of the study, sampling technique and sample size, data collection sources and methods, data collection procedures and data analysis methods. The study will use qualitative research design. This is because the study wants to gain more insight on the phenomenon. This is also because the data collected is also based on the individual interpretation of the respondents and their reaction to the questions. ML Mitchell, JM Jolley (2012) define qualitative research design as an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples that provide insights and understanding of the problem set. The target population will consist of students and teachers because the study is about the impacts of a teacher using technology to boost student understanding. However, for the sake of accuracy during our analysis, the population will mostly entail the teachers, experts, professors and students who specifically study sciences in their schools and have adopted technology in their system. The experts will come into play as the study requires some technical knowledge that will give the appropriate measure for understanding among the students. Judgmental sampling will be used to obtain the sample size. This sampling technique is considered appropriate as it will avoid sampling respondents who are not part of the target. A total of 100 respondents will be chosen to fill in the questionnaires within a period of three months
My data collection will be based on both the primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources will include observations, use of questionnaires, interviews and other techniques that will be relevant for the study while on the field. Questionnaires will be used to collect data as they require minimal resources regarding time, human resource, and cost. Questionnaires will also cover a broad cross-section. Structured questionnaires will be used to collect data and will consist of closed-ended questions. Below is a sample of questionnaire admitted:
- Name (Optional)
(i) Below 20years [ ] (ii) 20-30 years [ ] (iii) 30-40 years [ ]
(iv) 40-50 years [ ] (v) Above 50 years [ ]
- Marital Status
(i) Single [ ] (ii) Married [ ] (iii) Divorced/Separated [ ]
(iv) Others [ ]
- Education Level
(i) Illiterate [ ] (ii) Primary Level [ ]
(iii) Secondary Level [ ] (IV) University/College [ ]
- What is your Occupation?
(i) Teacher (ii) Student
(iii) Experts (iv) Professor
- When did you start using technology in your academic affairs?
- How often do you use technology in class or during your studies?
(i) Daily [ ] (iii) Monthly [ ]
(ii) Weekly [ ] (iv) others…………………..
- How much time have you spent on technology while trying to undertake your studies?
- What benefits have you derived from learning using technology?
- Before using the current technology, did you understand the concepts of the subject under study?
(i) YES [ ] (ii) NO [ ]
- What impact has technology created in your study?
- What impact does technology have on the scientific literacy?
The questionnaire will be administered face to face by the researcher who will provide any kind of assistance to the respondents as they fill the surveys. If we experience respondents who do not understand our language, but they empress technology during their teaching duties in class, then we will need interpreters who will facilitate us with the information given by the foreign respondents. The secondary data gathered will mainly emanate from the journals written on the subject of the study and also other case studies that were done earlier by researchers. Books will be also of great help as they will give more insights on technological literacy and thus provides a heads up for the inquiry plan. Furthermore, interviews will be contacted to both the teachers, students and researchers that occupy this space.
1st – 7th October 2017 – printing of questionnaires, vetting, selection and recruitment of the research team
10th -15th October 2017 – training of the research team, drafting their budget and any other needs and challenges that they may anticipate during the study.
17th -23rd October 2017 – getting down to the field to contact interviews and issue questionnaires to various respondents
25th -31st October 2017 – Data categorization and analysis
4th -20th November 2017 – Writing and editing the report, giving recommendations based on the findings from the analysis and conclusion of the report.
28th November 2017 – Presentation of the report and giving its justification to the bench.
After data collection, editing of the data will be done to clean the data, code and categorize before analysis and interpretation of the results. This will be done about the research objectives and research questions. The data collected from the secondary sources mostly used the appropriate models to explain the relationship between technological literacy and the students’ performance and understanding. The appropriate model applicable from the data collected entailed integrative model of Fishbein. The fundamental indicators of technological literacy were subject to culture, an individual attitude and self-drive towards a particular discipline in science while applying technology. This indicators were more subjective than objective. They posited that the variables were had effects on the following areas. The use of DLMs by fellow students in schools , how people are well versed with the use of DLMs and previous use of DLMs were seen to be major areas that could help transform and impact technological literacy if well utilized. The three variables were based on various norms of the society such as culture and alienation. However, the primary data analysis will entail Standard Deviation, Variance and mean which will be used to analyze the data. My principal instrument of the analysis will involve the STATA and Statistical Packages for Social Sciences of which I believe they will provide us finer details of what we anticipate to obtain the data has been collected. To obtain the measures of tendency as stipulated above I will have to include some variables in the study. The primary ones will be the level of understanding which will be a dependent variable. Technology, performance, disciplines teachers, and students will be also variables in the model but they will be independent variables. Our constant will entail duration of the disciplines that are taught in schools. Therefore I will create a table that has got various science disciplines and the hours consumed (see table 1). I will then proceed to create table 2 which will give details of the teachers and the technology they use in the disciplines taught in schools. My final table which will be table 3 will contain the name of the students, disciplines