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Qualitative and Quantitative Technique


  1. What study report is this? This study is “Termos, M. H. (2013). The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 25(1), 66-78.”
  2. What kind of study is this? This is a quasi-experimental quantitative study.
  3. What was the general purpose of the study? What questions does it raise? The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of classroom performance system on the participation, attendance, and achievement of students learning in a multicultural environment where English is not the first spoken language of the learners.
  4. How does answering the research question(s) add something new to what is already known? If the study is a replication, why is that important? By answering the research question, the study has contributed to the body of knowledge in the field of instructional technology in education. The most important adding to the existing body of knowledge is the role of classroom performance system in increasing learner’s participation, attendance, and achievement.Qualitative and Quantitative Technique
  5. Who or what was studied? (number and key characteristics). College students were studied. They were all attending multicultural Anatomy and Physiology classes at South Texas College. They were all taught equally and met the same teaching standards
  6. In sequential order, what were the major steps in performing the study? (Record these in a flowchart) Do not just repeat details from Items 1-5 and 7-10. Create an explanatory sketch that a year from now would help you recall how the study was done.
  • Identification of the sample size
  • Administering of pre and posttests.
  • Data analyses
  • Recording the results
  • Discussions
  • Arriving at conclusions
  1. What data were recorded and used for analysis? (e.g., questionnaire responses, test scores, fieldnotes, meter readings, etc.) Pre-post test scores were recorded and used for data analysis.
  2. What kind(s) of data analysis was used? (e.g., statistical, logical categorization, etc.) Statistical data analysis was performed where grade averages were compared.
  3. What were the results? (After analysis, what do the data from Item 7 say about the question(s) raised in Item 3?). The results obtained from pre and post tests and performance from the four exams indicated that the achievement of the students increased in the experiment sections. Regarding posttests for instance, all sections that used classroom performance system earned higher scores than those of the control group. In addition, they showed a higher improvement rate.Qualitative and Quantitative Technique
  4. What does the author conclude? (In light of both Item 9 and the entire study experience, what is said about Item 3?) The author then concluded that classroom performance system (CPS) has a positive influence on student performance.
  5. What cautions does the author raise about interpreting the study, and what do you think are important reservations? The author cautions that although classroom performance system has been found to have a positive effect on student performance, its effectiveness is influenced by the ability of the instructor to use it appropriately. Apart from using quantitative methods alone, the author could have used qualitative phenomenological approach that maybe could have led to different interpretations.
  6. What particularly interesting or valuable things did you learn from reading the report? (Consider results, method, discussion, references, etc.) The most interesting thing that I found from the report revolved around research design and methodology. It was amazing to read a research where the author has effectively integrated quasi-experimental design and quantitative approached and combined them with comparative statistic methods.

Qualitative-qualitative and Quantitative Technique

  1. What study report is this? (Record a full reference citation.) This study is Demir, M. (2018). Using online peer assessment in an Instructional Technology and Material Design course through social media. Higher Education, 75(3), 399-414.
  2. Who is the investigator? Include personal history, particularly as related to the purpose, participants, or site of the study.The investigator is Mehmet who works at the University of Pittsburgh in the School of Education for the Collaborative for Evaluation and Assessment Capacity.
  3. If made explicit, what type of qualitative research is this? Is the author working from a feminist, Marxist, interpretivist, symbolic interactionist, critical theorist, or other vantage point? It is phenomenology type of qualitative research design. The author works from an interpretivist point of view.
  4. What is the purpose of the study? What are the focusing questions (if any)? Is the purpose primarily theoretical, practical, or personal? The purpose of this study is to examine the perception of student and teachers about the advantages and challenges of using Facebook as peer assessment tool for the student teachers’ work. The researcher developed three focusing questions. The purpose of this research could be described as purely personal.
  • What are the student teachers’ perceptions in the course of Instructional Technology and Material Design regarding peer assessment using Facebook?
  • What are the benefits of peer assessment of the student teachers’ work done on Facebook in the course?
  • What are the challenges encountered in the process of peer assessment in the course using Facebook for assessment?
  1. Where does the study take place, and who are the participants? Describe the general physical and social context of the setting and salient characteristics of the main actors. If this is not a field study, describe the setting and participants presented in the secondary data source. The study took place in a state university that is located in Turkey’s southeast region. The participants were 24 student teachers. They were all studying third grade science at the university.  All of them were active users of Facebook.
  2. In what sequence did the major elements of the study occur? Describe (or diagram in graphic format, such as a flowchart) timing, frequency, order, and relationships used in organizing the study.
  • Identification of the study group
  • Three stages of sampling:Qualitative and Quantitative Technique

Identification of active users of Facebook that were willing to voluntarily participate in the study

  • Semi-structured interviews were conducted
  • Data collection
  • Coding of the data
  • Data analysis
  • Discussion and recommendation
  1. How were data collected? Was recording done through observation and fieldnotes, taped interviews with transcription, document analysis with record forms, or some combination? Responses from the student teachers were collected through taped semi-structured interviews.
  2. If this was a field study, what was the author’s role while collecting data? The author’s role was just to ask the interviewers questions and recording their answer
  3. What procedures were used for analysis of data? Was constant comparison used, were categories developed inductively, were themes constructed, was computer software employed? Before data analysis, the responses were coded to ensure confidentiality. Themes were constructed by analyzing and coding the data collected. The researcher used an inductive grounded theory; an approach that allowed for the emergence of codes after data analysis was carried out. A codebook was also developed from the three interviews. After it has been revised and refined, the codes were applied to the rest of the interviews. At the same time, attention was given to identify any additional emerging codes.
  4. What were the results? In general terms, what is the answer to the question, “What was going on there?” The results obtained indicated that Facebook can serve as a learning tool and has the potential to make course discussions become livelier by increasing the level of interaction and participation. Moreover, it was established that Facebook can act as a complementary educational platform that permits the creation of customized online space by learners and thereby making it easier for them to access their peers. Finally, the author established that Facebook provided an effective way through which students’ awareness and motivation levels can be raised, By contributing to more inclusive learning where students have several learning pathways, it was found that Facebook results in learners enjoying learning process.Qualitative and Quantitative Technique
  5. How are design or research methods used to enhance the credibility (trustworthiness and believability) of the study? The credibility of the study was enhanced by the voluntary method of recruiting participants and ensuring that all of them were active users of Facebook.
  6. What parts of the study did you find powerful or particularly instructive? What was moving or striking, and what provided new insight? I found the research’s findings that student teachers engaged more actively in class after taking part in online peer assessment particularly instructive. These finding are moving because they provide an alternative strategy to improve student participation in classroom. Additionally, the study provided a new insight into effective application of instructional technology in learning.