Pick an example each of a natural system, a human-made system and a human-modified (a natural system

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  1. Pick an example each of a natural system, a human-made system and a human-modified (a natural system that is modified by human-made components e.g. flood control system on a river) system and describe each of them in terms of their components, attributes and relationships.

A system consists of a collection of interdependent components that exhibit interaction among them. Usually, the system has been structured to facilitate this relationship and consequently, each system has its own unique behavior or characteristics. There are several systems that people interact with on daily basis. They include natural, human-made, and human-modified systems.

The natural system is analogous to the functioning of various body organs such as the kidney or the liver. Consequently, it is impossible for mankind to create these systems. When looking at the kidney, it is evident that it is made up of distinctive parts namely the nephrons, the bladder, and the urethra. The nephrons play the role of filtering. They allow what is useful in the body to remain but separate waste products. In an effort to make life easier by solving various problems that people face, human-made systems have been created. A good example is an irrigation system that sustains food production throughout the year. Human-modified systems have also been created in an effort to correct natural occurrences. For instance, systems have been created to control flooding, a natural calamity. Dams, for example, are used to store water used in irrigation and to produce electricity. The components of such system include a turbine, penstock, intake gate, powerhouse, and a large reservoir.

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Pick an example each of a natural system, a human-made system and a human-modified (a natural system

  1. What does systems’ engineering approach add to the traditional practice of engineering?

Systems engineering incorporates various traditional engineering disciplines such as electrician, civil, and hydraulics engineering into a single field to facilitate a project from its inception to operation stage by proving an effective way to deal with the complexity of systems associated with modern development projects.  However, it differs from traditional engineering specificities since no fundamental mathematical relations are involved. Its main focus is customers’ business needs and technical aspects of a system to ensure the end product is of good quality and that it satisfies their expectations.

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  1. Health care is a societal need. In your opinion, what are the overall requirement of this system and what would be the objectives of such a system?

Individuals, families, and communities require healthcare services. Generally, a well-established health care system consists of several components. They include education, provision of relevant training, and licensing. Additionally, opportunities should be provided for advancement. The objectives of this system should bet to ensure ease of access, quality, and sustainability. Health care systems should be designed and created with the view of increasing their accessibility. They should also be fairly distributed. The vision and objectives of healthcare should aim at achieving parity, solidarity, and universality. Regarding quality, patients should feel safe and their needs attended to. Concerning sustainability, the stem should be cost-effective and reasonably priced.

 Pick an example each of a natural system, a human-made system and a human-modified (a natural system

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  1. What are some of the potential benefits of systems thinking and systems engineering?
  • System thinking and systems engineering result in better understanding of systems and consequently competitive advantage. In system thinking, several components are analyzed in terms of their relationship. This way, the behavior of a system or a subsystem is understood better by putting related things together as opposed to taking them separately. Systems are also understood much better when studied individually first and then in relation to the environment as opposed to analyzing them as parts.
  • System engineering involves a collaborative approach towards design and management of a complex system throughout its life cycle. It is associated with several benefits that include achieving competitive advantage, reducing design changes and lead times, and resulting in quality final products. Common systems engineering include the top-down approach that begins with high-level expectations and the life cycle approach that analyzes the entire stages of a system including decommissioning.

Pick an example each of a natural system, a human-made system and a human-modified (a natural system

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  1. What are TPMs? How does QFD method help in arriving at TPMs?

TPMs stand for technical performance measures. They refer to qualitative aspects or quantitative standards that spell out the requirements of a given system. They can also be defined as the characteristics or features that are intrinsic to a given design.  They encompass such quantitative factors as maintainability, reliability, and logistics response time. TPMs are arrived at using Quality Function Deployment. It is helpful when evaluating a design’s technical feasibility, relevant technical solution, and a system’s requirements.

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  1. How is system evaluation accomplished in CSD, PSD, DDD, and Production phases of system development?

The CSD entails feasibility analysis.  It focuses on the operational requirements of a system, its maintenance, and advancement. At times, results are documented and take the form of feasibility analysis, functional analysis, or operational requirements. Various support and maintenance concepts also form part of CSD.

The PSD FA involves system requirement allocation, its synthesis, design, and tradeoffs. During preliminary design, PSD’s objects are evaluated in terms of functional analysis and conceptual design system.  Additionally, design criteria allocation and preliminary synthesis are also considered. Performance of a system, its configuration and arrangement form the main result of PSD’s output. Other important results include testing techniques, operation, and maintenance during the system’s lifecycle.

The DDD DD involves prototypes, trade-offs, and subsystem’s components. DDD have to provide sufficient and in-depth details during manufacturing. Moreover, it focuses on analyzing and evaluating aspects such as reliability, compatibility, compliance and maintainability.

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  1. What is Change Control Board? Why is change control important?

Change Control Board refers to a group made up of project team members whose main responsibility is to reject or approve a change request after reviewing it. Even when working on the most successful project, the work of Change Control Board cannot be ignored.

Change control board is important because they play a vital role in formalizing and controlling various changes, making it possible to trace various configuration baselines used. Changes in design can come about following customer request, introduction of new technology, or correction of design error.  All changes have to be evaluated with respect to the impact they will have on various components of a given system.  The Change Control Board helps to facilitate this process.

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  1. In queuing theory, should service rate, µ be greater than arrival rate, ? Why or why not?

Pick an example each of a natural system, a human-made system and a human-modified (a natural system

Since queuing theory involves problems that are characterized by waiting, the service rate, µ must be greater when compared to the rate of arrival, In their daily lives; people encounter many instances of queuing. In banks, for example, there are usually long waiting lines. A system that involves queuing is said to be working when service rate µ exceeds arrival rate,. In this case, the sum   will then converge towards zero.     

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  1. What information is obtainable using , R, p and c charts?

  

Based on the information contained in Chapter 11, a control chart forms a graphical representation that can be applied to point out parameter changes in a random variable process. Usually, the parameters can vary within two control limits: the upper and the lower one. This way, it becomes easy to detect any abnormal values.

The   chart refers to a plot of sample means against time. These averages are obtained from a process and are used to detect any variations outside the set limits. In the R chart, the ranges of these means are plotted against time. It is helpful in detecting variations in the distribution of a process. Additionally, sample range, mean sample range, global mean, sample mean, and other important measures can be obtained by combining the  and R charts.

P and c charts refer to attribute’s control charts. The p chart finds application in process and samples where it monitors the amount and number of deceptiveness respectively. Therefore, it helps to determine the occurrence of a shift in the extent malfunction in a given product or system. The analysis of the chart can be categorized into two: good or bad, operating or not operating, pass or fail. On the other hand, the c chart refers to a control chart. It helps in observing defects present in a unit. It requires that the units to be monitored be standardized. By ensuring that they are of the same size, volume, and surface area, an equal “area of opportunity” for detecting errors is provided.