Past Present and Future

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Past Present and Future

Past present and future represent the first among the twenty-six volume set of videos on a mission to explain varying concepts in the realm of psychology. The introductory video commences with the provision of basic definitions within the realm of psychology. The video extends to provide multiple personality disorder as one of the major examples of the conditions psychologists aim to solve. In this context, the video commences by introducing a woman with this particular condition. In some instances, this woman perceives herself in the context of a seven-year-old girl by the name of Carol (Zimbardo). In other cases, she perceives herself as a man with a particularly coarse personality by the name Devan. Following the description of these traits, the video commences with the explanation of the manner in which the disorder emanates from traumatic or sadistic experiences that occur during childhood. The condition tends to escalate as the victims attempt to mask their emotions.

The introduction of the concept of behavior sees the video highlight some video clips from the 1950s. During this era, the boys and girls at the junior high school level had a conference with their teacher who is either an attractive woman or a handsome man. The conferences incorporated pairing of the girls with the man and the boys with the woman. The departure of the teacher sparks laughter or embarrassed smiles from the girls and the boys. The video seeks to answer some of the questions relating to the reasons for the actions of the boys and the girls. According to the video, two factors have a fundamental impact on the manner in which people behave. The factors are situational and dispositional (Zimbardo). Dispositional factors are part of people. These factors are internal. They are inclusive of attitude, personality, and genetics.  Situational factors emanate from the environment. These factors are inclusive of rewards, punishments, and sensory simulation among many others.

The video also highlights the studies undertaken by Emanuel Donchin. The studies in this context deal with the impact of situational factors on the activity of the brain. Donchin attributed a wide array of names to varying individuals and proceeded to record the signals emitted by their brain. The list of the names comprised with the entirety of the names of the men with the occasional insertion of a woman’s name. The experiment generated a wide array of patterns when the names of the females emerged. Donchin noted the p300 waves generated by the brain in scenarios involving the occurrence of an unexpected situation.

The video also endeavors to provide explanations for the situational factors. The explanations provided for this concept seeks to connect body language with attitude. The video cites a study executed by Robert Rosenthal, which analyzes the relationships between the elements of vocal tone, facial expressions, and attitudes. The analysis reveals that the large majority of the body language can provide misleading attitudes (Zimbardo). However, the vocal tone often provides an accurate representation of the feelings of the person. Because of this reason, listening to the voice of the individual as opposed to analyzing facial expressions is critical when one is attempting to determine bluffs when playing poker.

Behavior is largely dependent on the manner in which the individuals perceive their actions. The video highlights the studies that have analyzed varying cultures and compared their actions to their societal norms. The studies conclude that the large majority of the people conform to societal norms as opposed acting normally.

Understanding Research represents the second video in the series Discovering Psychology. The program endeavors to provide an explanation regarding the manner in which the scientific and psychological communities arrive at their knowledge and conclusions. The video aids the exploration of the scientific method, the variations between theories and facts, and the different mechanisms for collecting and applying data in laboratories and real-life settings (Zimbardo). The article rightly cites that research often commences with probing questions. Some of the areas from which answers traditionally emerge include laboratory experiments, test groups, interviews, and surveys.

Understanding Research

The video notably provides a notable exemplification of research in the field setting.  It cites a research undertaken by psychologist Christina Maslach of the University of California at Berkeley. The study examines the issue of burnout in the context of origins and the measures necessary for curbing its occurrence. As opposed to employing conventional laboratory settings, the researcher conducts the experiment in scenarios where burnout is rife. In this manner, she employs the real world setting as a laboratory. The adoption of this approach leads to the study of stress in its most natural form (Zimbardo). The experiment is highly reliant on the life experiences of the subjects as opposed to their perceptions or memories of previous experiences. In this context, the experiment manages to achieve the objective of measuring the scale of job-related burnout as well as the health of the work environment.Past Present and Future

Aside from the study, itself being a notable example of the manner in which research ought to occur it provides some key insights regarding the manner in which we ought to understand its nature. One example of this aspect is the notion that it commences with the effort of answering questions regarding the cause of burnout. The question leads to the formulation of a research design that can provide the best possible answers (Zimbardo). In this context, the study infers that the best possible mechanism is examining the manner in which burnout occurs in the practical setting. Examining the occurrence of burnout in the workplace leads to the formulation of the most reliable answers

.Past Present and Future