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  Lesson Plan on Referencing and In-text Citation                          

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  Lesson Plan on Referencing and In-text Citation                          

Lesson Goals:

  • The main goal of this lesson is to help the students understand the basic definitions of referencing and in-text citation, clarify the purpose of referencing and in-text citation, show students how to reference correctly, as well as, how to recognize and employ discordant forms of in-text citations while acknowledging the instance of such within textual examples.

Objectives:

The student should be able to complete the following at the end of the class:

  • Recognize that information extracted from outside sources must be acknowledged.
  • Showcase the ability to recognize and distinguish different citation formats such as APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Turabian, Oscola and ASA among others with 90% accuracy.
  • Demonstrate the ability to employ the right procedure for citing books, anonymous articles, articles with authors, Internet articles and encyclopaedia articles with 90% accuracy.
  • Demonstrate the ability to make proper in-text citations and create a reference or work cited page in writing with 90% accuracy.

Rationale:  Lesson Plan on Referencing and In-text Citation                          

The aim of this lesson is to ensure that the students can discern the concepts of referencing and in-text citation by learning how to cite information obtained from outside sources in the correct format depending on the paper format. In this regard, the lower intermediate ESL students will be exposed to the different aspects of referencing and in-text citation based on discordant paper formats, that is, APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Turabian, Oscola and ASA among others. At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to know how to make correct in-text citations and create accurate works cited pages depending on the specific paper format and also adhere to all the prerequisites of referencing and in-text citation without facing significant difficulties.

Lesson Materials

  • Whiteboard or blackboard
  • Handout containing the objectives and requirements of the class
  • Colored Markers
  • Worksheets
  • Laptop

Procedures:

Tasks Time Procedures

 

Warm-up and Introduction         10

Minutes

·         Open the class by distributing the handout containing the lesson objectives and requirements, as well as, the duration.

·         Students look at the handout and familiarize themselves with the content of the lesson.

·         Allow the students to ask any questions about things they do not discern from the handout and raise any matters arising from the previous class.

·         Have they students briefly point out what they already know about referencing and in-text citation.

·         Write down some of the things the students mentioned about referencing and in-text citation.

·         Introduce the concept of referencing and in-text citation using the most basic paper formats, that is, APA and MLA. For instance, explain that in-text in citation in APA involves the author(s) surname(s) and the year of publication such as (Scott, 2014) while in-text in citation in MLA, on the other hand, involves the author(s) surname(s) and the page number such as (Scott, 1).

·         Tell the students to ready their pens since they will be writing references and placing in-text citations today.

Lecture about referencing and in-text citation writing 30

Minutes

·         Explain that there are rules regarding how to recognize sources in academic papers through in-text citation by placing an author or source in situations whereby there is no author, along with the page number or year of publication. At the end of the paper, the students should include a Reference or Works Cited page that follows the format of the paper, that is, APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Turabian, Oscola and ASA among others.

·         Remind the class of the purpose of referencing and in-text citation by emphasizing the point that failure to provide in-text citation and a reference page is tantamount to plagiarism. Display the picture in Appendix A to provide a visual representation of the repercussions of absence of in-text citations and references for information derived from outside sources.

·         Then provide examples of in-text citation and reference in both APA and MLA paper formats on the whiteboard. See Appendix B.

·         Provide some non-examples to elaborate how not to write references and place in-text citations. For example: The dog and the yellow cat walked across the street (Frozen, 2013) for an MLA citation requirement. Albeit this is a form of in-text citation, it is not the proper way of citing a source in MLA; instead, it is the correct way of citing a source in APA paper format.

Work Activity 30

Minutes

·         Display various samples of sentences with in-text citation and reference or Works Cited pages on the whiteboard.

·         Ask the students to work in small groups or with partners to identify and distinguish the in-text citation and reference styles used in the samples provided. This class activity can be done on the worksheets provided to the students at the beginning of the class.

·         Allow the groups or partners to share their answers with the rest of the class. Write notes on the whiteboard on the responses of the students.

NB: Students have to identify the in-text citation and reference styles used only in the samples provided by the teacher and not any other sentences and references.

Break Time 10

Minutes

Referencing and In-text citation Writing      30

Minutes

·         After the break, go through the samples of in-text citation and references on the whiteboard while projecting the writing template worksheets for the class to see and identify the referencing styles and paper formats together.

·         Direct the students to certain examples of in-text citations and general information on outside sources on the whiteboard. See Appendix C.

·         Ask the students to refer in these examples as they will form their writing assignment for today.

·         Ask the students to write the correct in-text citation style based on the paper format and use the provided general information on sources to write the proper references in APA paper format on their worksheets.

·         As the students complete this activity, walk around and ensure that their answers are correct in terms of recognition of discordant paper formats and correct in-text citation and referencing.

·         The in-text citation identified and references written over the course of this activity can be utilized as pre-assessments for future lessons given that they help determine whether the students fathom concepts such as core ideas or non-vital details.

Review and Analysis 10 Minutes ·         Review the correct way of referencing and placing in-text citation terms of their structure and paper format.

                      

Contingency Plan:  Lesson Plan on Referencing and In-text Citation                          

 

In order not to mislead the class or encounter any difficulties, I will provide various samples of references and in-text citations on the whiteboard to help the students understand the main concepts so as to write proper references and place accurate in-text citations in accordance to the paper format. This will ensure that the students do not experience any difficulty understanding how to write formidable references and in-text citations for academic purposes.

Assessment:

The samples of references and in-text citations on the whiteboard will be a way of assessing the ability of the students to distinguish different paper formats and determine, as well as, use the correct referencing style and in-text citation for APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Turabian, Oscola and ASA papers among others. The in-text citation identification and reference writing assignment will be a way of evaluating the ability of the students to apply the concepts of referencing and in-text citation by writing their own proper and accurate references and identifying the in-text citations based on paper format and referencing style.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A -Lesson Plan on Referencing and In-text Citation 

 

 

Appendix B

MLA Format

In-text Citation

Not much was achieved, but much to the dissatisfaction of farmers, the state authorized a novel college to be “devoted to agriculture and to be independent of the university” (Danhof 71).

Reference

Danhof, Clarence H. Change in Agriculture: The Northern United States, 1820-1870. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1969. Print.

APA Format

In-text Citation

Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002) suggest that FtF interactions are more efficient than CMC in formulating feelings of intimacy or closeness, while other studies suggest the contrary.

Reference

Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108.

 

Appendix C

Exercise 1

State the referencing style used in these sentences:

  1. The participants’ principal relationships were reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the prevailing level of disclosure was seen as lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004).

___________________________________________________________________

  1. Prior to 1820, the rural community constituted eighty percent of consumption of farmers’ products (Hurt 127).

___________________________________________________________________

  1. Yet since the information unveiled was so crucial, the cryptoanalysts saved the day.3

___________________________________________________________________

  1. The research conclusively proved a correlation between the results (Scott 2006).

___________________________________________________________________

Exercise 2

Use the information provided below to write references in APA. Follow the requirement of APA referencing style and paper format:

 

Authors: Dr.B.Jayachandraiah, O.V

amsi Krishna, P.Abdullah Khan, R.Ananda Reddy

Article: Fabrication of Low Cost 3-Axis Cnc Router

Source: International Journal Of Engineering Science Invention Lesson Plan on Referencing and In-text Citation

Year: 2014

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

 

Authors: Venkata Krishna Pabolu and Prof. Sri K.N.H. Srinivas

Article: Design and Implementation of a Three Dimensional CNC Machine

Source: International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering

Year: 2010

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

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