Instruments Used by the Researcher in the Study



                  Instruments Used by  the Researcher in the Study

The instruments used by the researchers in the article are performance tests. This tests drawn from the curricular course material that were being used by the school to test the students. The research employed the use of a control group. In order to ensure validity of the results and reduce the teacher effect, the participants were not made aware of the study objectives to avoid interfering with the normal course of the study (McMillan, 2016).

                    Are they Cognitive or Non-Cognitive Methods?Instruments Used by  the Researcher in the Study

The instruments used in this case were purely cognitive instruments in the form of performance tests that were used to assess the student’s intellectual skills as a result of changes in learning techniques. The tests were locally developed as they consisted of tests derived from the school’s curricular course material

The research in the article was an experimental research. Experimental research has certain strengths and weakness. One of the major strengths of this method is that the researcher is able to test the hypothesis through the use of indaependent and dependent variables and is therefore able to get objective results for the research. Nonetheless, one of the major weaknesses of experimental research is that the results are dependent on an artificial environment that is a construct of the researcher. The researcher should therefore be able to identify and control the research variables in order to ensure reliability of the results.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Research Methods Used-instruments Used by  the Researcher in the Study

From the article, it is clear that the researcher had a clear idea of the inherent weakness of the experimental research methods. This is evidenced in the use of a control group in order to affirm the reliability of the study. Further in order to control the threats to the internal validity, the researcher used the curricular course material to disguise the purpose of the test in order to reduce the teacher effects which is usually a weakness inherent in pre-test designs. Further, the lack of a pre-test design ensured that the teachers were not privy to the test content and were therefore able to conduct the usual teaching activities without external influence (McMillan, 2016).

                                              Research Project Progress

I have contacted all my participants, who comprise of Saudi Students who are studying English in Schools in Philadelphia and its environs. I have been able to recruit 25 students to participate in the study.

                          Collection Methods and Specific Instruments Used-instruments Used by  the Researcher in the Study

I will employ the use of both cognitive and non-cognitive methods in order to get both qualitative data which will form part of my analysis and quantitative data in the form of test score results. The non-cognitive methods which will be used to gather qualitative data will be in the form of questioners aimed at establishing the perception of the students towards the use of Twitter to assist in the learning of English. The quantitative data will be collected in the form of surveys to gauge the performance of the students who use Twitter and the control group who will maintain the status quo.  

The instruments that will form the basis of this research will be non-cognitive as they will not involve the students using any of their intellectual skills when collecting the data. The collection method will simply involve collection of the results of the students who use Twitter and those who do not and comparing any variations in the performance of the two groups.The instruments will be locally developed and derived from the course content material of the schools that will test these students.

                          Sample Questions to be Included in the Study-instruments Used by  the Researcher in the Study

The research will employ the use of a self-report that will allow the students to share their perception and attitudes towards the use of Twitter to improve their English learning skills. Some of the questions in the questionnaire will include:

  1. Has the use of Twitter helped you improve on your English skills?
  2. Has the use of Titter helped you understand the teacher’s instructions better?
  3. How else has the use of Twitter helped you in your English learning course?






McMillan, J. H. (2016). Fundamentals of Educational Research. Pearson.