Reexamine the various definitions of the field that have been mentioned in chapter one as well as several
After read the history of Instructional Technology through chapter 1, 2, and 3 and saw the media files I found that the definition of Instructional Technology went through the four stages of the task in 1920s when it was known as a media that helps teachers and 1940s they include the audiovisual. Then in 1977s, AECT defined as a process for design, production, and evaluation. Finally in 2008 AECT defined as “Educational technology is study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and learning and improving performance by creating using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”
Other definitions that you find online and/or in other resources.
One of those definitions Crawford, C. (2002) said”:
“Instructional technology has been defined numerous ways, but the final definition of instructional technology is towards the successful support of the learning goals for each delineated lesson. The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) has adopted the following definition of instructional technology: “Instructional Technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994). Through consideration of this definition, a clear understanding of the roles and processes pertaining to instructional technology can and may appropriately occur within an educational environment.”
Another definition that I found by Associated Organizations for Teacher Education, W. (1970) defined as:
“The President’s Commission cited earlier has defined instructional technology as: “a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on findings from research in human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction.”
A systematic way to use the technology in education through designs, development the educational ideas, and utilization of all technical possibilities in order to quality education.” I feel this is a good definition because it includes the main idea of using technology in education.
The meaning of the word “systematic.” Because it switches the meaning of (IT) as a media or what comes after that to as a process. According to Reiser and Dempsey (2012):
“Whereas the Commission’s first definition seems to reinforce old notions about the field of instructional technology, its second definition definitely defines the field differently, introducing a variety of concepts that had not appeared in previous “official” definitions of the field. It is particularly important to note that this definition mentions a “systematic” process that includes the specification of objectives and the design, implementation, and evaluation of instruction, each term representing one of the steps in the systematic instructional design procedures that were beginning to be discussed in the professional literature of the field.”(Reiser & Dempsey, 2012)
Educational technology: the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. (Wikipedia)
Instructional Technology: is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. (University of Michigan)
I feel the Instructional Technology label the best because it incorporates all aspects of the educational process as well as the introduction technology as tools and as a science.
A-Bobbitt who establish theory of the curriculum
“Educate the individual according to his capabilities. This requires that the material of the curriculum be sufficient various to meet the needs of every class of individuals in the community and that the course of training and study be sufficiently flexible that the individual can be given just the things that he needs” (Bobbitt, 1912, p. 269).
B-Tyler, Ralph W Morris Finder (2008) said”: Tyler, Ralph W. (22 Apr. 1902-18 Feb. 1994), educator and principal designer of the National Assessment of Educational Progress.”
- Robert Glaser “describes an instructional system in 1962 (p.1-30) that is comprised of five components:
◦ Instructional Goals (system objectives)
◦Entering Behavior (system input)
◦Instructional Procedures (system operator)
◦Performance Assessments (output monitor).
◦Research and Development Logistics (analysis and evaluation)”
The key differences between the “Early definitions: Instructional technology viewed as media” and the latest 2008 AECT definition of instructional technology is word ethical which is “Focuses attention on the fact that those in the profession” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012)
In 1941, the United States during World War II wanted training Military by producing more than 457 educational films. As result for that, soldiers received instructions from the films that were an impact on their performance of the tasks. That led the German leader after the war said: “We had everything calculated perfectly except the speed with which the Allies were able to train their people for war. Our major miscalculations were in underestimating their quick and complete mastery of film education.” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012)
- What was the significant contribution of behavioral learning theories to the IT field?
“By identifying the specific objectives learner who used the materials.” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012)
- What was the significant contribution of Gagne’s theories to the IT field?
Five categories of learning:
- Intellectual skills: Create individual competence and ability to respond to stimuli.
- Cognitive strategies: Capability to learn, think, and remember
- Verbal information: Rote memorization of names, faces, dates, phone numbers, etc.
- Motor skills: Capability to learn to drive, ride a bike, draw a straight line, etc.
- Attitudes: Ingrained bias towards different ideas, people, situation, and may affect how one acts towards these things.