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Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional



Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional materials, lessons and models. Nonetheless, instructional design goes beyond simply formulating teaching materials. The process entails determining the needs of the learners, defining the objectives and end goals of instruction, creating and planning evaluation tasks and designing learning and teaching activities to guarantee the quality of instruction.

ADDIE stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate

ARCS stands for Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction

Question 2

Instructional design’s foundation was established during World War II. During this period, there was a need to teach thousands of people specific tasks in a short amount of time (Purdue, 2019). As such, individual aspects of intricate tasks were broken down to enable soldiers better discern each step of the process. This approach was later adopted and improved resulting in the development of instructional design; a field of study that combines psychology, education and communication to produce the most effective teaching plans for discordant groups of students. Such a blend is prominent because it has ensured that learners receive instruction in a form that is meaningful and effective to them through the years.

Question 3

Robert Gagne is contemplated as one of the foremost contributors to the process of instructional design. Gagne’s model of instructional design is premised on the information processing model of the mental activities that take place when people are presented with discordant stimuli while also focusing on the learning outcomes and how to organize specific instructional events or activities to attain those outcomes (Khadjooi, Rostami and Ishaq, 2011). In this regard, Gagne’s theories have been implemented in the design of instruction in various domains such as leadership, healthcare, military and engineering among others. Essential contributions of Gagne are the “conditions of learning,” with internal conditions dealing with what the learner knows before the instruction and external conditions dealing with the stimuli that are presented to the learner such as instructions given by the teacher. Thus, Gagne established the specification of the objectives to be attained and organization of appropriate instructional events in instructional design (Khadjooi, Rostami and Ishaq, 2011).Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional

Question 4

Gagne’s three domains include:

  1. Cognitive
  2. Affective
  3. Psychomotor

Gagne’s nine events of instruction include:

  1. Gaining attention
  2. Informing learners of the objective
  3. Stimulating recall of prior learning
  4. Presenting the stimulus
  5. Providing learning guidance
  6. Eliciting performance
  7. Providing feedback
  8. Assessing performance
  9. Enhancing retention and transfer (Khadjooi, Rostami and Ishaq, 2011).

Question 5

Both Dick and Carey and ADDIE are instructional models that focus on the three things or elements, that is, input, output and the process of designing the curriculum.

Question 6Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional 

ADDIE Dick and Carey
Has five phases including:

§  Analysis

§  Design

§  Development

§  Implementation

§  Evaluation

Has ten phases including:

§  Identify instructional goals

§  Undertake instructional analysis

§  Identify entry demeanor

§  Write performance objectives

§  Develop evaluation instruments

§  Develop instructional strategies

§  Develop and choose instructional materials

§  Design and undertake formative assessment

§  Design and undertake summative evaluation

§  Revise instructions

More flexible More straight forward and detailed
The evaluation is done at the final phase The evaluation is undertaken at every phase of the process and a second evaluation is undertaken to revise the instructions to ensure that it attains the objective (Dick, Carey, and Carey, 2005).

Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional

Question 7

Bloom’s Taxonomy can be referred to as a hierarchical ordering of cognitive skills than can aid teachers in teaching and students in learning. There are six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy including:

  • Remember
  • Understand
  • Apply
  • Analyze
  • Evaluate
  • Create (Armstrong, 2018).

Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy refers to a revised Bloom’s Taxonomy by a group of curriculum theorists, psychologists and instructional researchers rechristened A Taxonomy for Teaching, Learning and Assessment. It is vital to note that while Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy has the same six levels as Bloom’s Taxonomy, it draws attention away from the static notion of educational goals in the later and points toward a more dynamic view of classification. Moreover, Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy has a separate taxonomy of types of knowledge utilized in cognition, that is, conceptual knowledge, factual knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and procedural knowledge (Armstrong, 2018).

Question 8

I find Dick and Carey instructional design model to be the most ideal. This is because it is more straight forward and detailed since it has ten phases compared to the five phases of ADDIE. In addition, Dick and Carey instructional design model entails evaluation at each phase and a second evaluation to revise the instructions. This process ensures that the instructional materials are not only of high quality but also incessantly improved through revision.

Question 9

  1. Benjamin Bloom: Established the Bloom’s Taxonomy based on three specific domains, that is, cognitive, affective and psychomotor and six levels, that is, creating, evaluating, analyzing, applying, understanding and remembering.
  2. Robert Gagne: Expounded on Bloom’s classificatory model. He retained the three principal classifications established by Bloom, but introduced five learning outcomes, that is, intellectual skills, attitude, verbal information, cognitive strategy and motor skills and nine instructional events.
  3. Lorin Anderson: Collaborated with Krathwohl to combine cognitive processes with conceptual knowledge, factual knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and procedural knowledge to form a matrix that is an ideal performance aid for formulating performance objectives or goals.Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional

Question 10

In as much as I would like to develop technologies that facilitate education, it is vital to note that the most important thing is effective instruction as the end goal and not the technology-based materials. This is what instructional design offers and I intend to use it in my career to formulate instructional experiences that foster the acquisition of knowledge in a manner that is not only efficient but also effective and appealing to students. More so, I can use instructional design to create flexible education technologies to meet discordant learner needs.

Instructional design refers to the process of formulating instructional













Armstrong, P. (2018). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved from


Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). New

York: NY: Harper Collins Publishers.

Khadjooi, K., Rostami, K., & Ishaq, S. (2011). How to use Gagne’s model of instructional design

in teaching psychomotor skills. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench, 4(3), 116-119.

Purdue. (2019). What is Instructional Design?. Retrieved from