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Identifying Confounds

  1. The independent variable is smiling. The researcher avoids smiling during her 8 a.m. physiological psychology course and smiles a lot while teaching the same course during her 9 a.m. class
  2. The dependent variable is class time
  3. The confounding or possible source of bias could be the level of energy among the students or the temperament of the researcher during the classes.
  4. To fix the confounding, the researcher should conduct her experiments using the two classes and in the same hour.
  5. There are two independent variables: cocaine or no cocaine
  6. The dependent variable is how fast rats learn to run the maze.
  7. The confounding in this experiment includes the ability of the two handlers to train their rats, the temperament of two groups of rats involved, and the kind of methods the experimenters used to train the two groups of rats.
  8. To fix this confounding, the researcher should employ one experimenter to handle both the cocaine and the control groups. The rats should also be drawn from the same litter to minimize the bias associated with variation in temperament traits.

Identifying Confounds

  1. The independent variable is smiling. The researcher avoids smiling during her 8 a.m. physiological psychology course and smiles a lot while teaching the same course during her 9 a.m. class
  2. The dependent variable is class time
  3. The confounding or possible source of bias could be the level of energy among the students or the temperament of the researcher during the classes.
  4. To fix the confounding, the researcher should conduct her experiments using the two classes and in the same hour.
  5. There are two independent variables: cocaine or no cocaine
  6. The dependent variable is how fast rats learn to run the maze.
  7. The confounding in this experiment includes the ability of the two handlers to train their rats, the temperament of two groups of rats involved, and the kind of methods the experimenters used to train the two groups of rats.
  8. To fix this confounding, the researcher should employ one experimenter to handle both the cocaine and the control groups. The rats should also be drawn from the same litter to minimize the bias associated with variation in temperament traits.