Human capital challenges in Uganda and opportunities.

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Human capital challenges in Uganda and opportunities.

Women in Uganda have frequently only had rights to land through a male figure such as a father, brother, son or husband. Although national laws are supporting equal right of women to own land, the communities are yet to embrace this law therefore making them ineffective and women continue in the injustice that reduces their capital incomes. Lease holders in Uganda do not hold formal agreements with the owners and follow up for missed payments is often hard. Human capital is influenced by various factors such

Skills and qualifications- this is what is lacking in a lot of Ugandan land owners because they barely understand the laws governing land and may therefore lose out on business relating to land.

Social skills- they involve communication. In the Ugandan case, women have not been very vocal on their rights or issues affecting them especially widows on land ownership. Often their land is stolen with no legal repercussions.

Intelligence- this is another factor that largely plays a role in human capital. In the study of Ugandan women, the intelligence levels of women are questionable. A majority of the women interviewed admitted to calling the shots on how money from the land is used within the homestead but when the question of legal hold of land in terms of documents is raised, the women have little say. They are also subjected to holding land via brothers, husbands or other male figures. The women do not have full rights to land as their names are commonly missing in ownership documents and incase a marriage is dissolved, they have little claim.

 

Personality- The women of Uganda work hard to make ends meet but this is rarely complimented by their community where the community laws rarely consider women.

Judgement- Very little knowledge is possessed on rights to sell, rent and bequeath rights to land by both men and women in Uganda. This will most likely hurt their interest in an event where they will need to sell land to investors and where they may be taken advantage of.

Political leaders and religious leaders are concerned with climate change in developing countries like Haiti where Haiti’s Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Rural Development (MARNDR) formulated the National Agricultural Investment Plan. It highlights importance of domestic food security, economic recovery and social stability by raising house hold incomes and promoting agro-enterprise development. International organizations are aiming at helping rural households plan better for the changes in environment. Religious leaders are tailoring projects such as Catholic Relief Services Agriculture for Basic Needs Projects in Central America and Mexico to help solve the problems.

  1. The women in Uganda are facing numerous challenges on land ownership as shown by Cheryl Dos and her team on Feminist economies. 80% of the land in Uganda is held under customary law that is unregistered, long term tenants ‘the Mailo’, public tenure applies to public land and leaseholders are protected under lease laws. All this factors have collectively denied Ugandan women the chance to own a land of their own and even limits them to land usage. The laws of the land also do not provide for spousal consent. A husband cannot ask his wife when he decides to sell a family parcel of land; neither does a brother ask his sister. They are also not protected from land grabbing. The women also engage in small economic activities allowed by the society and can therefore not afford to purchase land. The government favors more land acquisition by private foreign companies than the landless women. In the Volta region of Ghana, women face the same issues of land grabbing and owning by Multinational corporates that own land. This women however decided that theirs was going to be a different story and joined hands as Africa Faith & Justice Network (AFJN) and Ghana’s Volta Region Paramount Queen Mothers Association held a conference on land Grab awareness and prevention at the House of Chiefs in the region’s capital Ho. AFJN’s Policy Analyst Ntama Bahati delivered the keynote address.
  2. The challenges for economic development include scarcity and non-renewability. Scarcity in of water in some regions especially those that face long bouts of drought is limiting economic development as factories cannot be set in such areas as they need water to run their operations. The local community also focuses all its energies towards finding the scant resource and therefore little time is set apart for other economic activities. The Tragedy of the Common is negative as learned in class, as exploration is done without regard because they are answerable to no one in particular in their harvesting. Non-renewable resources also slow down economic development when they are depleted all of a sudden. The opportunities are numerous when the natural resource is in abundance. The opportunities include job creation, improvement and creation of amenities thus improving an area in general.
  3. Tourism can be an effective development policy for sustainable development in various ways. It is important in social development, economic development and political development because it fosters good relationships and offers employment opportunities. It creates cultural awareness of a particular community thus reducing stereotyping and the respect for the diversity of cultures is grown.

It has its associated problems too like environmental degradation. A tourist destination like the coast is often times painted as a clean job when it is far from it, the waste produced by hotels in the name of tourism is substantial and may be poorly disposed polluting the environment. Tourism also creates pressure on natural resources as the local community competes with the tourism sector for the survival of both. Often times the tourism sector will win because of its monetary advantage and the locals will have to contend with less. Tourists often do not know how to effectively utilize natural resources and may at times attack vulnerable environments leading to further degradation. Tourism is a powerful tool to erode cultural norms and traditions as it brings with it a wave of change of western ways and has the capacity to completely change the behavior patterns of the locals. Change is not always good. Violation of human rights such as child labour, prostitution and drug abuse have often times been introduced by foreigners. Sometimes tourist investments belong to foreigners and may not always benefit the locals as the work force may be outsourced denying the locals jobs. Most of the industry players import their inputs from their countries of origin denying the host nation a piece of the pie. Tourism therefore is not always an upward profit and it may sometimes leave the host country poorer in terms of cultural diversity, morals, natural resources and income levels.

  1. Be able to explain a model of economic growth and/or development presented by Hosseini or class slides, and assess the validity of that model using information presented in other articles. Nobel Laureate Arthur Lewis in his 1954 paper focused more precisely on dualism in labor markets. He explained that the relatively small non-agricultural commercialized sector was the dynamic partner, expanding and fed by the mobilization of the hidden rural savings which had been identified previously by Nurkse and Rosenstein-Rodan. Arthur Lewis further explained that, the reallocation process in the poor countries would continue until the surplus agricultural labor, that with zero marginal product of labor, moved out of agriculture into commercialized non-agriculture causing a turning point at which time dualism would disappear and the less developed economies would be transformed into developed capitalist ones. The underdeveloped economy consists of two sectors. The rural subsistent sector and the over populated sector, where the marginal productivity of labor is zero. It is this assumption that gives rise to surplus labor and disguised unemployment, enabling the withdrawal of labor from the traditional agricultural sector without causing a loss of output.

The second sector in Lewis’ model is the modern industrial sector, characterized by high productivity. The labor from the traditional subsistence sector is transferred to this sector which largely depends on it to thrive. The Arthur Lewis model explains the process in which labor is transfered as well as the growth of output and employment in the modern industrial sector. These two become possible only because of the output expansion in the modern sector.

10  Human capital challenges in Uganda and opportunities.

Women in Uganda have frequently only had rights to land through a male figure such as a father, brother, son or husband. Although national laws are supporting equal right of women to own land, the communities are yet to embrace this law therefore making them ineffective and women continue in the injustice that reduces their capital incomes. Lease holders in Uganda do not hold formal agreements with the owners and follow up for missed payments is often hard. Human capital is influenced by various factors such

Skills and qualifications- this is what is lacking in a lot of Ugandan land owners because they barely understand the laws governing land and may therefore lose out on business relating to land.

Social skills- they involve communication. In the Ugandan case, women have not been very vocal on their rights or issues affecting them especially widows on land ownership. Often their land is stolen with no legal repercussions.

Intelligence- this is another factor that largely plays a role in human capital. In the study of Ugandan women, the intelligence levels of women are questionable. A majority of the women interviewed admitted to calling the shots on how money from the land is used within the homestead but when the question of legal hold of land in terms of documents is raised, the women have little say. They are also subjected to holding land via brothers, husbands or other male figures. The women do not have full rights to land as their names are commonly missing in ownership documents and incase a marriage is dissolved, they have little claim.

 

Personality- The women of Uganda work hard to make ends meet but this is rarely complimented by their community where the community laws rarely consider women.

Judgement- Very little knowledge is possessed on rights to sell, rent and bequeath rights to land by both men and women in Uganda. This will most likely hurt their interest in an event where they will need to sell land to investors and where they may be taken advantage of.

 

  1. Be able to define the following terms:

Dependency Theory -It states that resources move from developing countries to developed countries.

Informal sector- the sector of an economy that is not controlled by the government and does not pay taxes

Kuznets Curve- It shows as the economy develops, the market forces first increases economic inequality before finally reducing the inequality.

Lorenz Curve-  It graphs the distribution of wealth or income                                        disguised unemployment – this is a form of unemployment where part of labor force is not working or working in a redundant manner

land reform- this is the division of agricultural land and distributed to the landless people

remittances- this the money that is sent to the government for example through taxes or other charges      AIDS/HIV- Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome

crude birth rate- is the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

crude death rate- is the number of live deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

Projection- this what forecasted to occur based on available data                                         demographic transition- refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized