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general operation of a machine cycle

A machine cycle refers to the steps that the processor of a computer must execute upon receiving a machine language instruction. It, therefore, refers to the basic operation that is performed by the computer’s central processing unit. It consists of a sequence of 3 steps performed continuously by the computer: Fetch, decode, and execute.

During the fetch operation, the instruction is requested by the control unit from the main memory. The instruction is usually stored at a location within the memory that is indicated by the program counter.

During the decode operation, the instructions received is decoded in the instruction register. The operation involves breaking the operand field to form its components depending on the operation code of the instruction.

The execute operation involves the instruction opcode and specification of the CPU operation to be done. The instruction sequence to be executed by the computer is indicated by the program counter. The instruction register contains the instructions. As each is executed, the instructions register increments the program counter allowing for storage of the next instruction. The moment the execution of instructions is complete, the machine cycle is restarted beginning with the fetch step

The fourth step is the store. Here, no actual processing occurs but the input and output from the three phases are stored in memory to be retrieved for later use.general operation of a machine cycle

 

43 Define and discuss embedded flash memory and its uses

The embedded flash memory refers to the non-removable flash memory that finds extensive use for storage purposes in portable devices such as tablets and cellphones. Their most common quoted storage capacity include 4GB, 8GB, and 32GB among others and are in form of flash memory chips that are fixed inside these portable devices such that they cannot be removed. The embedded flash memory has been a major enabling technology for most of the programmable semiconductor products characterized by low-power processing and small form factor requirements. In microcontrollers, the embedded flash memory is used to store program instructions, which are also referred to as code. They also store data to be processed.

 

44 What is a touchpad explain three types of its usages

A touchpad refers to a computer input device in which a pointer is controlled on a display screen by simply moving the finger along a surface that is touch-sensitive.

Touchpads are used mainly in laptop computers, where they function as scroll wheels. It aids in scrolling the window that has been focused on both horizontally and vertically.

Touchpads are also used to execute functions. For instance, by tapping on its surface, it can be used to launch an application or stop one, for example, the media player.

 

45 Compare graphical user interfaces (GUI) and command line interface

The Graphical User Interface is different from command line interface in that while the graphical user interface permits users to interact with a system through graphical elements that may include icons, menus, and windows; the Command-Line Interface permits users to interact with it through commands.

The graphical user interface is easier to use compared to the command line interface given that the command line requires the user to familiarize with the commands.

While the graphical user interface gives the user some control over the operating system and files, the command-line interface gives users total control over the operating system and file system, thereby simplifying the tasks.

The graphical user interface tends to be slower than the command line interface due to the use of the keyboard or mouse to control the operating system or file system

 

46 Define and differentiate shareware freeware and public domain software

 

Shareware refers to software whose cost-free period is restricted to the trial period alone. Upon the expiry of this duration, the software is no longer freely available. The user has to pay to continue using it or to receive the license for its use. Freeware refers to copyrighted software that is distributed for free. On the other hand, public domain software refers to the software that has been built for public use, is available for free, and has no copyright. Shareware, on its part, contrasts the two because it incurs distribution costs and at times demands registration. The public domain software resembles freeware. The difference however, is that freeware lacks the freedom associated with the public domain software. Moreover, unlike freeware, shareware has restricted cost-free duration.general operation of a machine cycle

 

 

47 What is a database?  Define the term field, record, and table, as they relate to a database.

A database may be defined as a collection of information organized in such a way that permits easy access, management, update.

A field refers to the part of a record that contains a single piece of data relating to the record’s subject.

Records are used to store data and are composed of fields, each of which is used to store one item of information.

A database table consists of records and fields used to hold data.   general operation of a machine cycle