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What is the difference between functional requirements and nonfunctional requirements?

Functional requirements is the

Functional requirements refer to rules in business that must be supported by a new system. Non-functional requirements describe system characteristics for example security, speed, response time and throughput. Each is essential and critical in a system.

  1. What types of stakeholders should you include in fact finding?

Both internal and external stakeholders are important in fact finding.

External stakeholders are people who are affiliated with a company and receive direct services and information but may not be directly involved in the operations. They include sector players example investors and other regulatory firms and customers.

Internal stakeholders are composed of different people namely the executive stakeholders in administration, people who directly work with a system example in general operations and others who depend on system success.

  1. List and briefly describe the six information gathering techniques.
  • Direct interviewing of sector players: primary data can be collected from information given by users and stakeholders. This process is the most efficient but the drawback is that it can be too costly.
  • Observation: this is good in the analysis of current business processes and what is required in each event.
  • Use of questionnaires: using questionnaires is good when the sample size is very large and distribution can help reach very many people at once. It can also be used in gathering specific and short data for use due to its limiting nature of answers.
  • Collection of feedback: this collects users’ complaints and comments in the quest for process improvement and analysis.
  • Reviewing of documentation of current systems: this process is good in research of currently occurring processes
  • Use of research vendor data: this is most efficient in the gathering of secondary data.












  1. Draw and explain the symbols used on an activity diagram.


  1. Describe the user goal technique for identifying use cases.


The user goal technique is a tool used in the identification of work goals and objectives of a system user and is done through interviewing the user and/ or user roles. They assist in the completion of work and each of the systems has to have supporting cases for each of the user goals.


  1. Describe the event decomposition technique for identifying use cases.


Analysis of all business procedures that are used and result in a certain business events.  The triggers that need system processing are these business events, example those that require use cases.


  1. What are the three types of events?


External event: These originate from a user

Temporal event: these occur at certain times either at specific points in time or in intervals.

State event – this refers to the changing of the conditions of data within the system


  1. What are three examples of events that are system controls in a typical information system that should not be included as a use case because of the perfect technology assumption?


Backing up of a database

User logging into a system

Restoration of a database


  1. What are the four operations that make up the CRUD acronym?


C = Create

R = Read or Report (output)

U = Update

D = Delete


  1. What is the automation boundary on a use case diagram, and how is it represented?


The automation boundary refers to the boundary that is in between the automated system. That includes the application, and the external world, including the actors.  It is represented by a rectangular boundary box.




  1. What is multiplicity, and what is the other term used by traditional analysts and database analysts?


Multiplicity refers to the measure of the number of links present in an association between an object in one class and the objects in another class. Traditional analysts refer to it as cardinality.


  1. What are the three types of associations, and which is the most commonly used?


Binary, unary, ternary (N-ary).

The most commonly used one is the binary.


  1. Sketch a simple ERD that shows a team has zero or more players and each player is on one and only one team?









  1. What does a domain model class diagram show about system requirements, and how is it different from an ERD?


A domain model represents classes which represent the features, their relationships and constraints and are very particular to a system and they have to be inbuilt in a database. Problem domain classes refer to the classes from a domain and are obstinate which means they have to be kept in the database.

The difference between a domain model and an ERD is that an ERD cannot be used to replicate or model real world situations since it is not as powerful and it contains a different notation to a domain model.


28. Draw a simple domain model class diagram for the example in question #22 where a team has zero or more players and each player is on one and only one team