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The confusion that stems from federalism over which government level has the responsibility and the mandate to handle crisis is a crucial issue in public administration today. Therefore, in developing policies regarding emergency response, local, state, and federal policy makers need to handle various issues appropriately and put certain aspect to consideration. The undertakings of the federal government must be within the powers as stated in the constitution. The level of autonomy that exists between the federal government and the local government must be engaged appropriately because both sides have law making power.

Political stability is an issue that is largely associated with federalism because the central government does not have to handle some contentious issues. In addition, federalism prevents tyranny and elevates liberty. Accountability and national policy creation are aspects that may easily be hampered by federalism. It is required of the local authorities to uphold a balanced budget. However, often times they cannot include possible economic costs from the federal regulations on their fiscal years. Federalism may subvert a rational national response to numerous fundamental challenges that face the country, while at the same time many people are ignorant of the state governments.

When developing emergency response policies policy makers need to consider the channel of communication that will be effective in dissemination of information and commands. The nature of a given emergency should also be considered because certain emergencies need federal intervention and coordination. Preparedness measures must be in harmony with those of the federal state for effective response. The role played by the international community and bodies in emergency response should be considered.

Public Policy lifecycle

Public Policy lifecycle is a multistage process in its very sense.

  1. The first stage is the problem identification. The process involves definition of the problem by institutions or individuals and groups by expressing the dissatisfaction with the status quo policy.
  2. Setting the agenda. After the problems are defined, various issues are tabled and the respective idea must pass through some levels of attention.
  3. Formulation of policy. From the problems presented in the agenda, there must be formulation of policy that will address the specific problem.
  4. Budgeting considerations. Appropriate financial resources are set in place and budgeting decisions are considered as to the amount of allocations to be channeled to the policy implementation process.
  5. The parties involved enforce the policy. The process of implementation may involve provision of products or services, adoption of rules and regulations.
  6. An assessment of the policies is done to establish their effectiveness in dealing with the problem as well as accomplishing the goals. The evaluation process may trigger another set of problem, thus a new process of public policy.