Explain resource loading and resource leveling, and how they differ. Give examples
Resource loading is the achieving of project goals via manpower or employees. The strategy adopts division of labor whereby each person is assigned a task and the person cannot take any additional work. An example is assigning 5 members of a project 20% of the project work each. Resource leveling on the other hand looks into time and available resources as the major considerations in achieving project goals. It is different from resource loading in that it tries to balance conflicting interests with available resources within the timeframe given for particular projects, other than entirely focusing on manpower. For instance, so as to complete 100% project goals, the coordinator looks at the project timeframe and available resources and uses them to determine how to go about the project.
- Identify the key factors that need to be considered when setting up a monitoring system, what factors are difficult to monitor? What are the benefits of timely, appropriate and detailed information?
Factors to consider when setting up a monitoring system include available capacity, scope, purpose and proponent of the monitoring system, time and cost of the monitory system, ease of deployment and use and number of stakeholders to be involved.Explain resource loading and resource leveling, and how they differ
It is difficult to monitor the proponent of a monitoring system since it is always not easy to track where this demand is coming from or why. It entails knowing whether the demands and pressure is coming from internal, multilateral or international stakeholders or a combination of all of these, and coming up with the conclusion may not be easy. This is because finding information from the parties involved may not be easy.
Timely appropriate and detailed information is very important in decision making. It eases the time taken on deliberations and makes decision making more effective. It is also an essential component of any effort to persuade individuals within a project team.
- What are the three main types of control systems? What questions do control systems answer? How does the control of creative projects differ from the control of ordinary projects?
The three main types of control systems are visual controls which enables one to see that the right things are happening and raise a flag on any situation that needs fixing. Secondly is the procedural controls which is intended to establish a known pathway to a consistently secure result. Lastly is the embedded controls which work without someone having to remember to do something out-of-the-way to use them. They work automatically in the background to protect your business from poor decisions or behavior.
The question that these control systems seek to answer is “how to balance the need to hand off decision-making responsibility to your team as you grow, with the reality that many times they will make poorer choices and obvious mistakes that you wouldn’t have made if you’d just kept control of the decision in the first place.”
The control of ordinary projects differ from the control of creative projects in that the former is more strict and ensures that the team works within a set procedure, rules and regulations while in the latter, the team works under less scrutiny as they are allowed to explore and come out with the best and most creative output.
- Describe the project audit and evaluation process, goals, construction, use, responsibilities of project auditor and measurement? What steps can be undertaken to ease the perceived threat to team members of an external evaluation?Explain resource loading and resource leveling, and how they differ
The project audit and evaluation process starts with defining the stakeholders, followed by describing the program, then is the focusing the design on the desired evaluation, fourthly is gathering of evidence, which is followed by the drawing of conclusions and finally, presentation of findings.
The goals of a project audit and evaluation process is to first, analyze the process of implementation, focusing on participation of the community secondly, analyze the impact or changes that have occurred within beneficiary households and the community, thirdly, identify problems and constraints that have been encountered and lastly, identify important lessons to be learnt and make recommendations for the implementation of future projects.
A project auditor has the following responsibilities: assists in making project risks transparent through project monitoring, finding out major learning points so as to ensure proper sustenance to upcoming projects and ensuring that risks encountered during the current project do not recur through project evaluation and assessing the completed project in terms of legal and regulatory compliance in terms of financial transactions.
The steps that can be undertaken to ease the perceived threat to team members of an external evaluation is first informing the team about the evaluation even before they embark on the project so that they may prepare. Secondly is reminding the team of the need to ensure appropriate conduct and interaction with the larger public so as to ensure positive reviews. Thirdly is ensuring that negative independent judgments made in the evaluation are exact, direct and well interview so as to not just ensure improvements are done, but also see into it that ill-intended persons do not make absurd and baseless reviews.
- Describe the project termination process. Varieties of project termination. How to determine when to terminate a project. What elements of the termination process responsible for making a project unsuccessful?
The project termination process can either be natural or unnatural. Natural termination follows the meeting of project goals. Unnatural termination occurs whether or not the project goals have been achieved and follows the team’s decision to stop work at a particular point.Explain resource loading and resource leveling, and how they differ
The factors which determine on when to terminate a project include: availability of capital to complete the project, a mutual shift in focus among team members, lapse of time, fulfilment of the need by some other source and occurrence of frustrations or unforeseen tragedies (e.g by natural disasters and calamities or government interference).
The elements of the termination process responsible for making a project unsuccessful include: fear among staff members of no future work, loss of interest, project derived motivation and team identity among the staff, and diversion of effort. Clients’ oriented elements include a change in attitude, loss of interest in the project, change of vendors, and loss of confidence in the project holders and withdrawal of knowledgeable client personnel. The project also suffers in terms of the identification of the remaining variables, control of charges to project, identification needs, disposition of facilities and materials, identification of outstanding commitments, materials assigned to projects and physical facilities assigned to project. All these elements which emanate from the termination process and affect the staff, the client and the project are responsible for making a project unsuccessful