Essay on The voyage of the Beagle

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Essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Introduction

The voyage of the Beagle comprises of events and findings of Charles Darwin and the crew of the Beagle. The Beagle is the ship. The voyage was one that had been commissioned by the government in the survey and mapping of the islands including Chile and Peru. It was also to include other islands surrounding the Pacific.  In additional to the survey, the crew was supposed to conduct research and provide and carry out chronometrical measurements in the regions.  The commander was Captain Fitz Roy. RN. Several attempts to set off backfired several times due to the unfriendly weather conditions. Finally, the Beagle left on the 27th of December 1831.  Darwin though inexperienced was promising and was thus offered space to sail and work with the crew.

Chapter 1: St. Jago – Cape de Verd Islands

Finally, after struggling to leave and having to return to Europe due to cruel winds, Beagle finally left safely sailed off (Darwin, 6) .This was on the 27th Dec of the year 1932.  The aim was to conduct surveys on Peru, Chile and other islands especially in the Pacific. On reaching Tenerife, the crew was denied landing with the fear of them spreading cholera to the residents. The best feeling for Darwin since the start of the journey was on January 16 when they anchored at Porto Praya, They were in St. Jago . The sea gave the surrounding a delightful look and view. However, the climatic conditions of the neighborhood seemed and proved unfit vegetation and animal support.  There was also the presence of lofty hills and mountains. (Darwin, 12)  Darwin and some of the officers in the crew would make visits to the neighboring places.  Ribeira Grande to the east of the port is one of the areas they visited.  At a valley known as St. Martin, they discovered green and beautiful vegetation. There were also several historical sites including churches and graves. Luckily, they had a guide to guide them through.  They also enjoyed viewing ornaments that reminded them of Europe. A ride to St. Domingo was interesting. They enjoyed the view of fine growing acacia. They also met black children who were surprisingly naked and carried firewood from the thickets. Mostly the atmosphere of most of the areas they visited was hazy and filled with dust. (Darwin, 28)

Darwin states that the geology here was most interesting.  He was keen in observing changes the weather and the heat effects of lava. He was a good observer and interviewer of the inhabitants.  The logical presentation of views is evident as Charles makes observations, makes comparisons with occurrences in other regions.

Chapter 2: Rio de Janeiro

Most days in the area were hot.  It was also calm, and the woods were motionless. However, there was presence of beautiful butterflies fluttering in the woods.  The waters remained calm, with the skies remaining blue.  The forests were dark, but the crew still managed to go through them and finally got to Ithacaia a village on a plain and inhabited by several huts belonging to Negroes.  Darwin and the crew also noted the presence of beautiful birds in the area.  Among the plants, there were parasites, ones that interwove with the stronger ones t to have support.  There were many lakes and calm rivers that gave the area a refreshing effect (Darwin, 29) Darwin also explains how they were hit by hunger during the visits to the places in the area. They found the residents and inhabitants of the area unfriendly, ungracious and disagreeable.  They were also filthy and dirty.  In the area, they traveled mainly on horse backs.

Assertions are emphatically presented. Darwin concludes that the inhabitants of the region were filthy and dirty. He supports this by describing their dirty clothing and houses.

Chapter 3: Maldonado-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

In the northern side of Plata, is Maldonado.  The area is beautiful and attractive with dwarf flowers and several birds.  Spending ten weeks in the region, Charles had the chance to explore the area and study the various animal collections that include birds, mammals, and reptiles (Darwin, 54) Mostly, the crew used horses to ride around the ares. Darwin was busy in data collections. Hiring the locals to help in information and data collection was helpful. The reptiles and the mammals were more in Maldonado than other animals.  The dears and the snakes, for example, were numerous (Darwin, 63)   Notably animals’ from the order Rodentia also existed in large numbers.  Several bird types were also evident in that region.  The grassy areas were filled with beautiful birds that kept singing in peculiar sounds and noises.  The mocking bird is one in which Darwin developed much intrest. (Darwin, 66)

Assertions are presented after clear observations and interviews with the inhabitants. Darwin supports his opinions by use of evidence.  For example Darwin asserts that the neighborhood of Rio Plata was prone to the thunderstorm. He uses a church with fused wires, the blacked wire, as reviled the likelihood of the house being struck.  His conclusion on the Thunder occurrence is supported by the evidence.

Darwin concludes by noting how much he learned in the area. He supports these by the records of several animal species he collected, recorded, investigated and learnt from.

Chapter 4: The Rio Negro to Bahia Blanca-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The Beagle left Maldonado on July 24th.  Finally, it got to Rio Negro on the 3rd of August. The region is characterized by scanty and scarce vegetation. The water in the area is scarce too. One of the experiences in the area is the attack of the Indians on the Estancias.            During the survey, the crew also noted the presence of the many lakes in the region. (Darwin, 71)  The flamingo is the bird that was in large numbers in the region. It was noted majorly on the areas around the lakes.  The Crew later left for R. Colorado. The interesting region consisted of sacred trees. Darwin was keen to observe them and record the findings.  In the bushes, they noted and realized the presence of the Patagonian Hare.  In the area, he came across Indian families who he included in his journal of the study of the inhabitants of regions they visited. They had to proceed to Bahia Blanca. Here, there were sand dunes were very frequent in the area. They also had the chance to study the Zorillos they came across. (Darwin, 89)

Assertions are well present in the article. Darwin asserts that the Indians were cruel and ruthless people. He describes how they attacked their neighbors as evidence. He also noted how the other inhabitants feared them. The views are presented in a logical manner. They are a result of consultation and interviews with the inhabitants of the area.

Darwin’s conclusion is how rich the area was in providing information.  He explains the extents he went through to gather the information. Also, the chapter provides evidence of how much he learned in the areas.  He also uses the chronology of events in his descriptions.

Chapter 5: Bahia Blanca-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The Beagle anchored here on August 24th and left after a week for Plata.  The area was majorly covered by red clay. It also included the presence of rocks calcareous in nature. (Darwin, 91)   Darwin was interested in the study of skeleton from extinct species that they found during the survey.  The skeletons depicted the huge size of the animals. They were stuck in the red mud.  Since the area had scanty vegetation, the conclusion was that large animals can even survive in areas without luxuriant vegetation. (Darwin, 98) Apart from these large animals, there were other smaller animals in the region. The quadrupeds include panthers, lions antelopes, and hyenas.  It was also surprising to note that the animals especially the lions were in large flocks and yet survived in the area with little vegetation.  There were also ostriches observed in the waters swimming and others at the water banks.  The study of birds was a major focus for Darwin in the surrounding regions. They were numerous in number and type.  The cock for example that has much resemblance to the hen was noted almost everywhere.  The reptiles also existed in the region.  Poisonous or venomous snakes were evident.  Darwin also studied toads in the regional and also lizards.  He also studies hibernation of eth animals and the factors and circumstances that lead to the same. (Darwin, 116)

One of the major and interesting assertions of Darwin in the chapter is that large animals can survive in areas that are without a lot of vegetation. He is supportive of the assertion after the discovery of the bones and skeletons of large animals in a region with scanty vegetation. Darwin views about how easily survival is even with areas with little food come from his keen observations. He also argues how an animal as big as a camel survives the desert environment.  His conclusion on how well animals can survive on a land with little food to offer is thus sufficiently supported.

Chapter 6: Bahia Blanca to Buenos Aires-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

On the 18th September, Darwin left for Buenos with a Gaucho he hired to offer company in the ride.  A soldier provided guidance through Sierra de la Ventana.  The mountain was cumbersome to go through and also it was difficult to get drinking water (Darwin, 127) .They, however, managed to find some in rocks. The mountain had thick forests that made passing through very cumbersome.  There was dew in the night. Nights in the region were mainly windy. Each time they saw horses driving, they thought they were being attacked by hostile and ruthless Indians.  General Rosa then sent soldiers for Darwin. They provided a perfect opportunity by providing company and guidance for him while he conducted the studies.  In the mornings, much hunting was common.  They found different partridges types and also foxes. They also found ostrich eggs for food.  Unfortunately, Indians killed five soldiers who Rosa had sent.  Darwin showed interest in long legged plovers and studied them.  Storms in the region were characterized of hail. They lead to the death of several birds and animals. Rio Tapalguen was characterized by fertile soils.  The meat was the main diet Darwin had feasted on for several days. (Darwin, 125)  He had the chance to take a break and buy some biscuits.  In Rio Salado, there were several cattle herds. They reviled the effects of overstocking. There was little water, and grass was drying up.  20th September was the day of arrival in Buenos Ayres. The region was surrounded by beauty, and the houses were amazing. One spectacle worth attention was the corral that was useful as a cattle slaughter place for easy food supply.   (Darwin, 139)

Darwin presents assertions well in the article. He uses observation and consultations with the local people for information.  His view of the land as beautiful and attractive among many places is supported by the observations he made, and the comparison he made between the region and other regions.   The logical presentation of views is seen as Darwin was a frequent observer and always consulted with the crew and the inhabitants. These are sufficient in supporting the conclusion.

Chapter 7: Buenos Ayres and St. Fe-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Darwin left for an excursion to St. Fe on September 27th.   The roads were impassable as a result of the rainy weather at the time.  The most common animals they came across were the Bizcacha.  The animals seemed tame and calm. The animal fed on anything it came across including hard objects.  In the holes of these animals, there were little owls (Darwin, 142).  In other words, it is known as Athene cunicularia.  The birds were observed in paid most of the times.  He also came across the Noble Parana River.  The view of the land was attractive with the running water and surroundings of mimosa trees.  Passing through Corunda was interesting. It was comprised of luxurious gardens. The road to St. Fe, however, was unsafe.  It was also full of prickly mimosa plants.  In the morning of 3rd October, Darwin and his crew safely arrived in St Fe.  Climatic conditions here favored the huge Ombu trees. The area was also inhabited by fewer cacti.  The weather in most of the occurrences was unfit for research in the woods. Vivid descriptions from people were helpful in completing survey of the areas. (Darwin,156).

Darwin is presented assertions in a clear manner. For example, he asserts that the soils in the areas were majorly volcanic. He tests the soils and makes observations of the rocks present. He also uses knowledge and facts in history about the area. A logical presentation is viewed in the use of evidence and consultations with the crew and inhabitants. The evidence sufficiently supports the conclusions.

Chapter 8: Banda Oriental and Patagonia-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Darwin and the crew experienced the delay in the city for two weeks before they could leave for Monte Video. (Darwin, 159)  The journey was tedious, cumbersome and long.  Passages were muddy. On the November 14th, Darwin proceeded to Colonia Del Sacramiento. The region is to the North of Plata. Darwin was able to study a peculiar and singular breed of oxen.  The breed was named Nato.  They had some similarities and differences compared to other cattle.  They toured areas around mercedez also.  They came across pebbles that were perforated, and Darwin was interested in their study.  In the estancia on the Berquelo,  there was a shepherd dog. The dog gets some meat from the house daily.  The dog dogs are meant to keep guard and maintain security. They can pursue or attack any strangers.  There were also horses whose purpose was breaking-in.  This was fascinating for Darwin.  He was watched Gauchos riding on the horses.  There were numerous animals in these regions. Darwin also studied fossils including animal remains in the regions. In the six months Darwin stayed here, he studied the people meant their character. The Gauchos were polite and hospitable compared to other people.  The Beagle left Rio Plata to the coast of Patagonia.  In the journey, the study of insects was ongoing. Snowing butterflies were present in the air.  The Aeronaut spider and its web are other things Darwin Studied.  He also studied sea animals.  Finally, they got to Port Desire on 23rd December. The sea was phosphorescent in view. Flora in Patagonia was limited. This is due to the extinction of animals in the region (Darwin, 166).

Assertions and views are well presented in the article. Darwin is keen to provide evidence for assertions he makes. The assertion that the area was rich in information is supported with the many recordings he makes in his work. He records finding new plants and animals in the region. Regular and keen observations are one way of presenting views logically. He also discusses some findings with the crew and consults the locals before making assertions and presenting views.  The conclusion of how rich the area is in providing information is therefore supported by evidence.

Chapter 9: Santa Cruz, Patagonia ad Falkland Islands-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The chapter describes events, happenings, observations of Darwin in the mentioned areas. The Beagle finally got to Santa Cruz where it anchored on 4th April 1834.  Captain Fitz was ready to proceed with the survey as long as time would allow them to do it.  The river gave the area a beautiful and calm look (Darwin, 177).  However, the river had so strong currents that made sailing for the crew cumbersome.  The crew was afraid of the Indians on realizing heavy smoke and trails. However, they safely managed to cross the island. Birds, insects, and rodents were numerous in the region and hence Darwin took interest and advantage of studying them.  The study of the river reviled the presence of rocks and gravels. They discovered that some gravel could not be transported by the river.  Darwin shot one Condor and also studied its structures.  Sometimes it was very cold and weather characterized by the presence of hailstorm.  Sometimes nights were rainy and stormy. They also came across wild horses that remained in one part of the island. More bodies of horses were found dead compared to cattle.  Horses seemed to be weak, smaller in size and unhealthy.  The case was different as they seemed larger in size and healthy.  Large parts of the islands consisted of rabbits.  They also had the chance to meet the canis antarcticus  a fox that had a lot of resemblance to the fox.  The animals were native in the islands.  The crew also learned how easy it was to have fire from bones. In Falkland they also studied geese that mainly walked in a pair or in flocks.  Darwin and the crew examined compound animals that had plant like bodies. (Darwin, 183)

Proper presentation of assertion is evident in the article. Use of evidence and facts is sufficient.  The assertion that the Condor bird is not uncommon comes from the several times he saw it in different regions in the area during the survey. Though he uses observations, he makes consultations and also uses facts in historical books. This depicts a logical presentation of views. The conclusion is thus sufficiently supported by evidence.

Chapter 10: Tierra del FuegoEssay on The voyage of the Beagle

After surveying the Patagonia and Falkland islands, they arrived in Tierra del Fuego on December 17th.  Anchoring at the Good Success Bay was cumbersome as the sea was unfriendly. The savages, inhabitants of the region seemed friendly and were waving the crew and offered to offer directions (Darwin, 191). There were Feugians in the crew who the captain had taken for hostages after the loss of a boat.  Communication was cumbersome because they could barely speak English though they did understand.  The crew talked with the savages who had turned to be friendly and supportive.  The areas were difficult to penetrate and pass through. The forests were also thick and mountainous (Darwin, 199)   There were also waterfalls too and dead trees lying that made even crawling through very difficult.  Cape Horn is the place the crew spent the Christmas Eve that year.  The Fuegian Wigwams made of grass and branches were in most places. Some were built and covered with skin.  They learned of famine and its effects from the Fuegians.  The inhabitants always attacked each other for food and were thus cannibals. This was major during famines.  The captain also ascertained the beliefs of the inhabitants as they found bodies buried in caves.  The tribes lacked governments or political systems but were hostile to each other. The women in the area were hard working. They got involved in both wigwams building and working in gardens (Darwin, 206).

Darwin supports his assertions well by using facts and evident from observations he made. The way of life for the natives was uncivilized. He supports this by observing how they lagged behind in some life aspects including feeding and dressing. The logical presentation of views comes in as he uses a combination of historical facts, observations, and explanations from local people and comparison to make assertions and state views.  His conclusion is that the people in the region are far from civilization compared to people in other regions.

Chapter 11: Strait of Magellan- Climate of Southern Coast-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The chapter mainly describes the climatic conditions of the southern coasts.  For a second time, the crew got to Strait of Magellan. (Darwin, 216) This was towards the end of May in 1834.  The area was majorly consisted of plains.  Anchoring on Port Famine on the 1st of June, we realized how cheerless it was as winter had just begun.  The atmosphere was hazy while the woods were snow covered.  There were also mountains surrounding the region.  The forests were impassable and difficult to crawl through as they were cold and wet. The trees, the fern, and the mosses were covered with snow. (Darwin, 221)   There were also winds that made the weather not conducive for survey.  However, the forests were evergreen. There were several tall and strong trees. Also, the dwarf alpine plants were ion these forests.  Some plants in the forests provided food for the inhabitants.  The mammals’ in the area were minimal and included the bat, the whales, and the seals.  The mice were also noted. The woods were gloomy and only inhabited by few bird species.  There were no reptiles in the region.  Beetles are also few in the region.  The presence of glaciers was also evident (Darwin, 130).

Assertions in the article are properly presented. Darwin is keen to observe details in the survey.  He asserts that the area was gloomy and also poor in Zoology. It had little to offer him as a researcher. He provides evidence for this by recording the few animals he discovered and studied in the area.  He can logically draw views and opinions.  He draws conclusions after careful examination of the area and making comparisons with the historical facts already in the record.  His conclusion on the climatic conditions in the area being unfriendly is sufficiently supported by evidence. Evidence includes the snow in the area, few animals living in the region and the difficulties the environment gave them during the survey.

Chapter 12: Central Chile-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

At the bay of Valparaiso, Beagle anchored. It was on the night of 23rd July.  Everything was delightful as the climate was favorable (Darwin, 237). The atmosphere comprised of dryness, hot weather and a blue and clear sky.  The area is steep and mountainous.  However, the productivity of the area is low since rains rarely fell.  Vegetation is scarce and scanty especially in the summers.    In The Andes, Darwin found shells lying all over. They were covered in the mould.  In the Valley of Quillota, there were evergreen forests with the atmosphere proving pleasant. In Chile, communication is common due to the lack of rains. The vegetation is scanty, and bushes are low. The hills were covered by rocks that seemed to break frequently.  There were gold mines in the area also.  There were also copper mines. They realized that Chile used the cheapest mining means.  Laborers seemed to be ill-treated.  There were plains that were bare and without a tree.  Some birds of the genus Pteroptochos were observed.  Humming birds were also available in the region. Darwin also studied many insect types (Darwin, 231).

Darwin relies mostly on his observations to make statements and give opinions. In this article, he has used a lot of factual figures to support his assertions. He gives most of his statements strength by relying on information gathered from the habitants of Central Chile. He gathers from Jemmy Button and Spanish inhabitants that there are no reptiles. He, however, sees a frog on the Bank of Santa Cruz. In another pool of water, he notices a Succinea aquatic beetle, and he is quick to note that it could be called terrestrial shell in Chile.

This shows that Darwin is consistent in his excursions and presents his ideas and assertions logically. His discussion based on observation and other tools of collecting information are sufficed to support his conclusions.

 

Chapter 13: Chiloe and Chonos Islands-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The beagle gets to the Chiloe Island on November 10th. The place is extremely stormy with unfavorable conditions.  The inhabitants are interested in pig keeping and fishing. Also, they enjoy potato farming (Darwin, 240). The forests are impassable and impenetrable.  The wetness and snow on the trees and other plants made crawling cumbersome.  Expedition to survey the islands begin with Darwin finding little to comment on or study.  The poverty of the inhabitants is, however, evident. On the Island on San Pedro, Darwin and the crew struggle their way through the thick yards walking on logs.  In the islands, they meet the native Indians.  They also meet and study the barking bird. More animals include mice. Horses are unavailable as they are incapable of living in the extremely cold conditions. (Darwin,266).

Darwin gives explanations for observations that he makes. When he notes that the soil of the land is fertile enough to support the growth of thick vegetation, he is quick to explain the reason for this fertility. He cites the presence of decomposing volcanic rocks. He also goes ahead to give other contributing factors that support the growth of the thick vegetation. Darwin also uses adjectives that quantify his observations. Use of words like low stature and complexion to describe the inhabitants gives some sense of reality to the article. He cites genuine problems of land allocation in Chiloe. This is a main concern in most parts of the world, and clearance of forest for settlement is a common thing. People of Chiloe, however, cannot clear forests easily as they are restricted by the government. The nature of trees in the region is not easy to clear by the fire making it difficult to clear land for settlement. This barks Darwin’s observations.

His arrangement of ideas, observations and discussions are more organized and appear systematic and in a reasonable manner. This gives support to his conclusions.

Chapter 14:  Chiloe and Conception: The Great Earthquake-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Attempting to go through or cross forests was a major challenge. (Darwin, 269) They were impassable.  Darwin found and studied shells at the shores.  The unclear forests made journeys too long.  The people of the island were graved in poverty, and the government system made the situation harder and worse. Darwin and the crew studied areas that previously experienced earthquakes.   It was at the town of Concepcion. He also studied the effects of the earthquakes on man including property destruction and displacement.  There was also a great wave they witnessed that carried way a boat and drowned a woman.  Darwin could not stop wondering how the government failed to maintain authority and gather resources to help the people.  Agitation of the sea waters is said to be a major cause (Darwin, 277).

Darwin makes the assertion that earthquakes enough can be harmful to the prosperity of the country. He provides evidence by indicating how he observed destroyed homes as a result of the earthquakes. He also gets information from the natives. His arguments, therefore, support the conclusion of the chapter.

 

Chapter 15: Passage of Cordillera-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Beagle anchors at Valparaiso again. Darwin sets off to cross the Andes Mountains. (Darwin, 290).  He sets off with ten mules. He is preparing for the snow by carrying supplies to avoid getting snowed.  The river is impressive as it is both powerful and fast.  The region is rich in minerals. Sometimes, mining is as easy as picking rocks and determining what ore they contain.  Darwin does not find new animal or plant species in his survey.  He is, however, interested in the mountains and the actions of the snow.  Darwin discovers the below and gradual elevation of the Cordillera. He also discovered the presence of red snow on the way.  He also visited Mendoza, which is fruits’ rich. On the northern of the region, however, soils are drier and covered with cacti (Darwin, 306).

Darwin is keen to note some of the main evidence in his article from the happenings that he experienced in his several miles tour. The place is not settled, and thus, paths are impassable making his tour more complicated.  He explains the presence of cactus on the way. Despite relying largely on his observations, Darwin has interacted and shared with natives and the crew. This shows that he does not rely on his own knowledge and mere observation. He develops conclusions that are well thought of and that are supported by evidence.

Chapter 16 – Northern Chile and Peru-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The 420-mile journey around Northern Chile is made longer by the means of transport that Charles decides to use. He acquires a total of six animals to use which he later sells. There is no much of geological experience along the coast line and this forces Charles to get deeper and look at the culture of the people around. The main idea that comes out clearly is the kind of life the miners have. The article also looks greatly into how weather and earthquake are related and how much they influence the life of the people in Peru and especially the miners (Darwin, 313).

Darwin is keen to note some of the main evidence in his article from the happenings that he experienced in his 420 miles tour. The place is not settled, and thus, paths are impassable making his tour more complicated. The inhabitants live just for the moment and not worried about the future because they do not save. Farmers sell their produce on the farm to meet their daily needs. The miners will spend all their weeks’ earnings in one weekend and go back to mining without anything left. Most of the land is left un attended and its filled with thick and hard grass that even the mules can hardly feed on. (Darwin, 346)

Despite relying largely on his observations, Darwin has interacted a lot with the people to gain sufficient support for the views he expresses. There is the interaction with an engineer when dealing with the issue of water. This shows that he does not rely on his own knowledge and mere observation. He goes further to develop the argument basing entirely on the situation in Pere and his observation to warrant the conclusion he makes.

Chapter 17 – Galapagos Archipelago-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The article looks at the different islands Galapagos Archipelago (Darwin, 358).  The most cultivating part is the weather of this region bearing in mind that is located just below the equator and in the coast of America. The fascinating volcanic action in the region is of great interest. The region has got rich flora with over 225 species, a hundred of which are new and only found in the region. It is worth noting that as many as ten of these new spices were found mostly in the cultivated region. It is also fascinating the fearless culture of the animal species in the area. Birds and reptiles show little fear of human beings (Darwin, 367).

The main observations are supported by the use of figures where possible. There is also the immense use of figures and pictures, especially when looking and comparing the beaks regarding shape and size. There is the immense use of quantifying adjectives in the article. The use of color to describe different things in the article is also widely used. The issue of quantifying is evident when talking about the tortoise. It is hard to quote the exact figures and thus a lot of quantifying adjectives like enormous, large, outstretched and large quantities are used.

The ideas are logically presented. They are based on observation and discursions. Most are based on the years to show sense of research and understanding. The sense of reality is exhibited when Darwin had to stay awake and count the total number of black truncated canoes.

Basing on the arguments presented by the author, facts, figures and mere comparison of the observation especially of the behavior of the birds species, I think that there is enough support for the conclusions that he makes.

Chapter 18 – Tahiti and New Zealand-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

It is at Tahiti that the Beagle spent the fifth Christmas. It starts at Matavai Bay after a journey of 3,200 miles from Galapagos (Darwin, 371).  Tahiti is highly mountainous, and there is coral reef along the coast line that protects the agricultural land from sea tides. Darwin and crew had a rough time traveling because Tahiti is highly mountainous. They had to keep along river valleys. At times, they had to use ropes to climb steep hills and coral reefs. The land in Tahiti is very productive, and there is plenty of fruit plants ranging from oranges, pineapples, bread fruit, and coconuts. There is a massive farming of sugar cane, sweet potatoes, and yams. Though Darwin does not like the place, he falls in love with the way the Tahitians are friendly and beautiful. Their good look is enhanced a lot by their tattoos. (Darwin, 386)

The issue of time and dates is very common in the article. Darwin uses a lot of adjectives of time in this article to present facts and assertions in this article. Even though there is no much use of discrete figures to present these facts, there is a considerable use of adjectives of time like enormous and the like. When describing the eve of Christmas day, he talks of the morning prayers, after breaks fast and the market day.

Due to the large use of adjectives of time, the views and more organized and appear in a systematic manner. This gives a chance to reasonably construct the views with wit and a lot of ease.

Darwin shows us that he is in love with the people despite the fact that some are extremely dirty. He also shows us that the place is agriculturally rich but concludes that Tahiti is not a pleasant place. I feel that he does not give enough support for this conclusion.

Chapter 19 – Australia-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

On first sight, Darwin falls in love with Australia. His first impression of this country then changes though not to a very great extent after he moves to the interior. (Darwin, 397)  There is forced labor by the government. This contributes to some development and rapid growth that leads to disadvantages like inflation and personal anonymity. The inhabitants believe that foreigners who visit the country bring with them infections. Some infections are only experienced in some regions and not others (Darwin, 406).  The article looks at how climate affects influences infections and certain diseases.Essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Darwin supports his ideas and opinions using dates of certain events. Better still is when he uses comparison of different situations from Australia and from England. When talking about the culture of the people he describes how the natives of the Cockatoo tribe paid their settlement visit. He narrates clearly how they held their Corrobery feast and the main activities like dancing and painting that characterized it. He spent ten days doing an excursion in Van Diemen, which was a former land of Epoch. They take time examining the objects and highly fossiliferous in the neighborhood. These were from the Carboniferous period and which are compared to the existing.

Darwin uses the main tool of comparison and observation in this article. This is a good approach that is logical. It also helps him in reasonably constructing and arguing his ideas and opinions.

By the virtual of how Darwin supports his claims and assertions in this article, it is sufficient to make conclusions. His ideas are well developed and lay out.

Chapter 20 – Keeling Island: — Coral Formations-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

Keeling is an Island, and there is very little of flora to explore on (Darwin, 422). The main plant seen is coconut and is the main source of food for the inhabitant’s pigs and another kind of carb. Darwin is, however, fascinated by the coral and the coastal features. Coconut trees grow in the water logged green lagoon. After further exploration, they realize that coconut is not the only tree as it seems. There are about six other species of trees and about twenty species of weeds that grow amongst the tree species. Darwin also finds out of the fresh water. This gives a chance to explore a variety of fish species. Fascinating thing is that the animals in the island do much better than the flora. Major islets are infested by rats that come aboard ships from Mauritius. There are no present land birds, but there are many waders in the island (Darwin, 440).

Darwin gives figures to support most of his assertions in this article. The mentioning of names of different species and different features is a superb way of supporting assertions and ideas. There is immense use and mention of historical years that show support of facts. Darwin compares to other smaller and larger islands. He has his explanation of the Fringing reefs, Barriers and Atolls which he claims to be the three classes of coral reefs. He shows his astonishment of these features and is not amused that other explorers like Pyrard de Laval in 1609 were marveled by these features.

The kind of observation and excursions are well organized. They help the author to arrange his ideas in an organized and logical manner. The thoughts have been reasonably constructed with the help of observation and comparison with known information.

Darwin has been able to support his ideas and insertions to the reader to warrant him to make such a conclusion.

Chapter 21 – Mauritius to England-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

This is the tour through the Eastern Coast of Africa in the return trip to England (Darwin,456). Darwin is marveled at the beautiful and promising sceneries. After the coast are the beautiful fields of sugar cane.  This time, he meets the different race of people walking in the streets. The encounter in a slave country was devastating. People were from different races making the place, even more, confusing. People here were convicted of different crimes. At least, Darwin had to finish his voyage by getting to explore more about people and not about the animals, plants or the physical features. He, however, had a chance to view different sceneries. His mode of travel was mostly through water, and he affirms that it is terrifying (Darwin, 466).

Being towards the end of the voyage, Darwin has gained a lot from the excursion. His ability of comparison without illusion is increased. He compares the life culture of the slave country and other free nations and especially England.  He says that the sceneries of some parts of Europe are superior to any other and that the two classes are beyond comparison. He has also succeeded in creating a picture of these beautiful sceneries in the mind of the readers. When he talks of the haunt by the native barbarian, you will have your mind wandering to that horrible moment that you dread.

Through the creation of pictures in the mind of the reader, his ideas appear logical. They are thus easy to construct in a reasonable manner. This is enough to support his conclusion and assertions.

Conclusion-essay on The voyage of the Beagle

The beagle and its crew finally returned safely to England.  Darwin and the other crew had a good and fascinating trip. The previously inexperienced gentleman got back to England more enlightened and more knowledgeable.  In other words, Darwin had made noticeable progress and had great experiences.  He had learned patience and dealing with challenges every step of the trip. He recalled the difficulties in movements through forests and thickets. The book also reviles the geology of the named regions where the Beagle visited. Reading the articles in the book is also a fascinating experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Darwin, Charles. 1909. The Voyage of the Beagle. Reprinted by Barnes and Nobel Library of Essential Reading, 2004, with introduction by Catherine A. Heinze. New York. 478pp. ISBN-10: 0-7607-5496-9.