ECON/IB 356–Economic Development and International Geography



ECON/IB 356–Economic Development and International Geography

Midterm Exam

Due October 23, 2016 at 11:59 PM on Moodle


Please respond to the following questions in a thorough and clear fashion.  Utilize examples from the readings, presentations, class discussions, videos, slides, notes, and personal experience/knowledge, where appropriate. When submitting your exam, please include all responses in one file and include each question above your response. A good essay offers an argument that is supported by evidence and references to arguments put forth by scholars we examined, not merely unsubstantiated platitudes and generalizations. THERE IS TO BE NO COLLABORTION AMONG STUDENTS ON THIS ASSIGNMENT.  If you need clarification about what a question is asking or a concept we covered, please contact me via email.


  1. Using definitions presented in class/class materials, distinguish between economic growth and development (in more than one sentence). (10 points)


Economic growth is the increase or rise of total output in a country. This is the increase in real GDP which means it includes all the increase goods and services within a nation. However, economic development is the quantitative and qualitative increase or change in the living standards of the people in a nation.


  1. Discuss how the land, natural resource, and climate issues we have covered would impact growth, and how they would impact development, explaining why these impacts would be different, or if they would be the same. (30 points)

Land, natural resources and climate play a major role in economic growth and development of  any nation. There are countries that depend on agriculture as their main source of foreign exchange. For such nations, land, natural resources and climate can have a great impact on economic development of the pertained countries. For instance, favorable climate, fertile land and abundant natural resources mean that the country will have increased production of crops and harvested natural resources like minerals and oil. This will lead to economic growth since there will be increase in total GDP of the country. Similarly, increase in production of natural resources like minerals, timber and oil will lead to economic growth. When their quantities increases the nation will experience an increase in GDP which leads to economic growth. Land, natural resources and climate can also lead to economic development. This will be a result of improvement in both quantitative and qualitative


resources such as minerals and forest can lead to economic growth when the quantities of minerals mined or trees harvested increases. Natural resources and climate can also affect economic development in that they can lead to both quantitative and qualitative increase in output. Land lead to increase in output within a country and if the growth in output is more than the growth in population. This leads to an increase in living standards of the general population, which is referred to as economic development. The impact between growth and development because growth does not translate to better or improvement of standards of living of people while development incorporates improved standards of living of people in a country.


  1. Discuss the merits and deficiencies (pros and cons) of at least two (competing) map projections, then make a case for why the study of geography should be about more than cartography. That is, identify other aspects of geography and explain why they are important for people to study. (30 points)

There are three common types of map projections namely, cylindrical, conic and azimuthally. The merits and deficiencies of these three types of map projections are discussed below.

Cylindrical map projections


Cylindrical map projections conserve the angles of longitudes and latitudes. In this scenario, the angles are not altered as a result of projecting the cylindrical maps. For instance, right angles remain as right angles. This makes it smooth to navigate by coordinates.

Cylindrical maps are also ideal for comparison of latitudes and visualizing the globe.


Cylindrical maps alter the size of objects.   If one goes to the north or south of the globe, land tends to get bigger. For instance, the size of Greenland is the size of the African continent on a cylindrical map projection.  Moreover, cylindrical map projections also alter the shape of other objects such as water, distances and land. This has a negative effect when it comes to estimation of navigation time.

Conic map projections

Merits of conic map projections

Conic map projections are ideal for polar areas and aeronautical maps. This is because conic map projections present latitudes in circular form.

Deficiencies of conic map projections

Conic map projections are not ideal for presenting large areas because they are prone to distortions as the size of objects increase. This is explained by the fact that as you move far away from the line that intersects the earth, chances of distortion becomes higher.

Why the study of geography should be about more than cartography

The study of geography should be more than cartography because cartography focuses on the study of presentation of the earth and its features on a flat surface by use of, for instance maps, while the study of geography focuses on the study of earth as a home of human beings. Geography should apply cartography in presentation of its analysis.

As a study of earth as a home of human beings, geography is concerned with the study of the land, features of the land and its inhabitants plus the natural phenomena.  Geography has two main branches namely, human geography and physical Geography. Physical geography is mainly concerned with the study of natural features and their effects on human beings. It entails aspects such as weather and climate and land formations.   On the other hand, human geography is concerned with the study of processes and how they affect human society. It entails political, economical and cultural aspects (Kennedy,2000).


  1. Choose a model of economic growth and/or development presented in the Hosseini article or class slides, and discuss how it would change if the issues we discussed related to human resources played a more central role in the model. Note, your response should emphasize and detail the human resource issues, more than the model. (30 points)

The model that I will choose is the Harrod-Domar Growth Model. This model is based on two factors, savings and productivity of investment. If there was an increase in salary and wages for people, then according to the model there will be economic growth since there will be more output in the country. Similarly, if there was a decrease in workers morale then it means that there will be a decrease in output since the people will not motivated to work. They will not feel the need to work hard and therefore affect their output, which in turn affects the overall output in the country. If human resources such as skills of laborers were improved then it will lead to increase in output, which will also be matched by improvement in quality of services, and the output. This will lead to increase in economy since people will earn more money and thus save the extra leading to economic growth. Another human resource that can affect the model is increase in the number of workers available in the market. When the labors force increase it leads to increase in output, which leads to more savings and investment thus leading to economic growth (Welker, 2012).



Welker, J. (2012). Models of Economic Growth and Development. Economics in Plain English. Retrieved 24 October 2016, from

Kennedy, m. (2000). Understanding Map Projections ArcInfo™ 8 Melita. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc, 8.