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Describe the main forms of transplant: isograft, autograft, and xenograft.

Isograft is the process of grafting tissues between two individuals who are genetically identical for instance twins.

Autograft is the process of transplanting tissues or organs from one part to another on the same individual.

Xenograft is the process of grafting tissues, living cells or organ transplant from one species to another.

  1. Discuss the medical uses of transplantation and give three examples.

Transplantation is used to increase chances of surviving, clinical condition, quality of life of solid organ transplant recipients, reduction of camorbidity and improvement of labor life. Examples include ; blood transfusion, renal transplantation that increases patients survival over dialysis and lifesaving transplants are indispensible to treat patients with liver, heart or lung irreversible diseases.

  1. Discuss the principles of blood transfusion.

The principles of blood transfusion include; first selection of the case- this is where whoever is administering blood transfusion knows the kind of the patient he or she is dealing with (why transfusion is happening), secondly is selection of the donor – donors blood should be healthy and this is why donors blood should always be screened,  thirdly is dosage that is the amount of blood that should be administered to a patient, thirdly is to learn about risks associated with blood transfusion or what might go wrong during the process and lastly is to identify the mode of transfusing blood.Describe the main forms of transplant

  1. Describe the RH incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.

It occurs when a pregnant woman whose blood type is RH-negative is exposed to RH-positive blood from her fetus, this leads to production of antibodies by the mother, the antibodies attach at the fetus’s red blood cells resulting in hemolytic or destruction of fetus red blood cells. The fetus might be anemic or may lead to hemolytic disease of the new born.

  1. Discuss the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmune diseases is as a result of specific immune response directed against structures of the self, it is consequence of an altered immune system. An autoimmune response may be primary T- or B cell mediated or both.

  1. List three congenital immunodeficiency diseases and three acquired immunodeficiency states.

Example of congenital immunodeficiency diseases include; common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), bruton agammaglobulinemia and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD).  Protein-calorie malnutrition, cancer metastates to bone, and HIV infection are example of acquired immunodeficiency states.

  1. Explain the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and list its most important complications.

AIDs I caused by HIV viruses, they interact with a large number of different cells and escaping the host immune response against it. Complications of Aids are that it attacks body’s immune systems hence lowering and leaving it prone to many diseases such as Tb.

  1. List the three forms of amyloid and relate them to clinical presentations of amyloidosis.

Three forms of amyloid include; AA amyloidosis, dialysis- related amyloidosis (DRA) and familial or hereditary amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is when an abnormal protein called amyloid build up in the body’s tissue organs. Dialysis-related amyloidosis is more common in older adults and people who have been on dialysis for more than 5 years, familial amyloidosis is rare type of disease while AA amyloidosis renal a Dialysis-related amyloidosis are the most common clinical presentations.

SECTION 2: TERMS AND Definitions-describe the main forms of transplant

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-is a disease caused by HIV virus, the diseases causes’ severe loss of body’s cellular immunity, greatly lowering body’s immunity.

Allografts-is the transplant of tissues or organs from one individual to another of the same species but of different genotype.

Amyloidosis-is a disease caused when proteins called amyloid builds up in body tissues or organs.

Anaphylactic shock-is a severe allergic reaction to an antigen to which the body has become hypersensitive.

Antibodies-is a proactive protein produced by immune system in response of presence antigens in the body.

Antigen- foreign substances in the body that stimulate an immune system response

Antigen-presenting cells (ACPs) –are heterogeneous group of immune response by processing and presenting antigens for recognition by certain lymphocytes.

Arthus phenomenon- is a form of immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity resulting in erythema, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis it occurs specifically in rabbits after antigen injection to an animal that has already been sensitized and which it has specific IgG antibodies.

Asthma-is a respiratory condition in which airways becomes inflamed, narrow and produces extra mucus, thus making it difficult to breath.

Autograft-is the process of transplanting tissues or organs from one part to another on the same individual.Describe the main forms of transplant

Autoimmune diseases- are where body’s immune system malfunctions and attacks and damages its own tissues.

B cells- are a type of white blood cells which gives rise to body’s antibody factories.

Bone marrow-is referred to as the spongy tissues inside the bones in the body.

Contact dermatitis-is a skin condition that makes it red or inflamed after contact with allergen or an irritant.

Cytokines- are broad and loose category of small proteins that aid cell to cell communication.

DiGeorge syndrome-Is a syndrome caused by deletion of small segment of chromosome 22.

Goodpasture’s syndrome-is an autoimmune disease which occurs when antibodies attacks basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding of lungs and kidney failure.

Graft-versus-host reaction-is a condition that occurs after an allogenic transplant, that is donor bone marrow or stem cells attack the recipient.

Graves’ disease-is the immune system disorder of the thyroid glands making them to produce excess thyroid hormones.

Haptens- are referred to as small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier.

Hay fever-it is an allergy caused by pollen or dust making the mucous membrane of the eyes and nose are inflamed causing running nose, watery eyes and sneezing.

Hemolytic anemia-is a blood disorder in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they are made or replaced.

Homografts-Is tissue graft from a donor from the same species as the recipient.

Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs)-are viruses that cause AIDS and interfere with body’s ability to fight infections.

Hydrops fetalis-is a condition in fetus and newborns it is characterized by abnormal accumulation of fluid in two or more fetal compartments.

Hypersensitivity reactions-is when a particular condition that causes the immune system to overreact.

IgA deficiency-is a genetic immunodeficiency where people lack immunoglobulin that is an antibody that protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways and digestive tract.

Immunity- is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defense to fight infections, diseases or other unwanted pathogens in the body.

Immunodeficiency, congenital-is a genetically disorder determined and manifested typically during childhood and infancy, it is characterized by a deficiency absence or defect in one or more main components of the immune system.

Immunoglobulins-are antibodies that protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways and digestive tract.

Kaposi’s sarcoma-is a type of cancer that develops from the cells that line lymph or blood vessels.

Lymph nodes-are small structures that play a vital role in the body of filtering harmful substances.

Lymphocytes-are white blood cells that are also one of the body’s main types of immune cells, they are made in bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue.

Maternofetal RH incompatibility-is defined as a hemolytic disease in newborns babies caused RH group incompatibility between the mother and child.

Myasthenia gravis-it is a neuromuscular disorder that causes weakness in skeletal muscles.

Natural killer (NK) cells-are type of cytotoxic lymphocytes that has granules with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or cells infected with virus.Describe the main forms of transplant