Describe carbohydrates, calories per gram of carbohydrate, what organ uses carbohydrate exclusively



  1. Describe carbohydrates, calories per gram of carbohydrate, what organ uses carbohydrate exclusively, describe how the body uses carbohydrates, define simple carbohydrates, list and describe 3 simple carbohydrates, list and describe 3 complex carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. They form one of the basic food groups important to a healthy life.

Calories per gram of carbohydrate is the amount of energy per every gram of carbohydrate. One gram of carbohydrates equals about 4 calories and the estimates indicate that women need 1,600 to 2,000 calories, while men generally require 2,000 to 3,000 calories each day to maintain a healthy weight.

The body organ which use carbohydrates exclusively is the brain.

When you eat carbohydrates, the body breaks them down into simple sugars, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. As the sugar level rises in the body, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin is needed to move sugar from the blood into the cells, where the sugar can be used as an energy source. The body then uses the absorbed sugar as a source of energy for muscular tissues and as a fuel for the central nervous system.

Simple carbohydrates are sugars with a simple molecular construction of one or two parts. The body processes them quickly because of their simple molecular structure. They are found in different categories namely: fructose (found in fruits), galactose (found in milk products), sucrose (such as table sugar), lactose (found in dairy) and maltose (found in beer and some vegetables).

Complex carbohydrates on the other hand have three or more sugars. They take the form of either starchy foods (which include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, potatoes, corn, parsnips, whole-grain breads and cereals), glycogen (which is muscle sugar) and dextrin- low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen.

Describe carbohydrates, calories per gram of carbohydrate, what organ uses carbohydrate exclusively

  1. Define and describe fiber, sources of fiber, describe fiber and disease prevention,

Recommended fiber intake, define soluble and insoluble fiber; List 5 tips to increase

Fiber in your diet.

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that the body can’t digest. While most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber cannot be broken down into sugar molecules, and instead it passes through the body undigested hence fiber=complex carb=0 calories.

Sources of fiber include cereals, nuts, fruits, beans, seeds, plant leaves and bread.

Fibers are important in disease prevention as they reduce the risk of CVD, cancer of the colon, breast or rectum and diabetes. Fibers also ease constipation.

The recommended fiber intake is 38g/d for adult males, 25g/d for adult females and 15g/d for a typical US.

Soluble fiber is fiber which dissolves in water and can help lower glucose levels as well as help lower blood cholesterol and excrete fat. Insoluble fiber on the other hand does not dissolve in water and is used to help food move through your digestive system, promoting regularity and helping prevent constipation.

Fiber intake can be increased in one’s diet by 1. Eating whole fruits instead of drinking fruit juices. 2. Replacing white rice, bread, and pasta with brown rice and whole grain products. 3. For breakfast, one can choose cereals that have a whole grain as their first ingredient. 4. snacking on raw vegetables instead of chips, crackers, or chocolate bars. 5. Substituting beans or legumes for meat two to three times per week in chili and soups.

Describe carbohydrates, calories per gram of carbohydrate, what organ uses carbohydrate exclusively

  1. Define and describe fats, calories per gram of fat, uses and function of fat, percent triglycerides in food and body, define saturated fat and list its sources, define unsaturated f at and list its sources, define glyceride.

Fat is another macronutrients that form part of our diet. There are 9 calories for every gram of fat.

Fats are used as a big source of energy for the body cells. Fats also absorb shock, preserve body heat and are used as insulators for the body.

Trygliceride or simple fat is made up of glyceride and 3 fatty acids which is one of the major types of fats. Glyceride is a simple sugar ester of glycerol.

Saturated fats are those that are solid at room temperature. They have no double bond between molecules, which means there are no gaps and the fat is saturated with hydrogen molecules. They are mostly found in animals and include fatty beef, lamb, pork, and chicken with skin, whole milk, cream, butter, cheese and ice cream.

On the other hand, unsaturated fats have double bonds, which break up the chain of hydrogen molecules and create gaps, allowing the fats to liquefy at room temperature. They originate from plants and include canola oil, olive oil, peanut oil and sunflower oil.

Describe carbohydrates, calories per gram of carbohydrate, what organ uses carbohydrate exclusively

  1. Define and list polyunsaturated omega fatty acids, list sources of omega 3 fatty acids, disease prevented by Omega 3 fatty acids, ratio of omega-3 to omega–6 in diet, recommended daily intake of omega-6.

Omega 3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. The major source of Omega 3 fatty acids is in fish such as Anchovy, salmon, trout, tuna and sardine.

Polyunsaturated omega fatty acids are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their compound.

The ratio of onega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in a diet should be 1:4

The recommended daily intake of omega-6 is 10g/day.


  1. Define and describe proteins, function of proteins, calories per gram of protein, define amino acids, list and define essential amino acids, define complete and incomplete proteins

Proteins are organic molecules made up of amino acids which are the building blocks of life. They form part of hormones, enzymes molecules and antibodies.. Proteins also help in maintaining a normal balance of body fluids. They also serve as an alternative source of energy when carbohydrates supply are low. Then they are metabolized to maintain normal blood glucose levels. 4 Calories per gram of protein. Amino acids are theare the basic building blocks for tissues, organs, Essential amino acids must be provided in the diet because the body cannot produce them. They include Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan and Valine Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids while incomplete proteins miss one or more essential amino acids.


  1. Define and describe minerals. Describe the source, function, and deficiency symptoms of calcium, sodium, and potassium,

Minerals are crucial chemical but inorganic components of respiratory pigments, enzymes and enzyme systems, essential to maintaining water and acid-base balance.

Water is a major mineral but other sources of minerals include nuts, beans and lentils, dark leafy greens, fish, seeds and whole grains. They are used to regulate muscular and nervous system impulses, blood clotting and normal heart rhythm.

Deficiency symptoms of a lack of calcium include bone pain and fractures, periodontal disease, muscle cramps.

Deficiency symptoms for lack of potassium include irregular heartbeat, nausea and weakness.

Deficiency symptoms for lack of sodium include muscle pain, possible deterioration of heart muscle, possible muscle and hair loss.

Describe carbohydrates, calories per gram of carbohydrate, what organ uses carbohydrate exclusively

  1. Define and describe vitamins. Describe the source, function, and deficiency symptoms of vitamin A, D, E, K, and B1.

Vitamins are essential organic compounds essential to our diets. They are classified as either water soluble or fat soluble.

A summary of the sources, function and deficiency symptoms of vitamins A, D, E, K and B1 is tabled:

Nutrient Sources Function Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin A Milk, cheese, eggs, liver, yellow and dark green fruits and vegetables. Required for healthy bones and teeth, maintenance of inner mucous membrane thereby increasing resistance to infection, adequate vision in dim light. Night blindness, decreased growth, decreased resistance to infection, rough dry skin.
Vitamin D Fortified milk, cod liver oil, salmon, tuna, egg yolk For bones and teeth.

For calcium and phosphorous absorption.

Rickets, ftactures, muscle spasms
Vitamin E Veg. oils, yellow and green leafy veges, margarine, wheat germ, whole-grain, bread and cereals. Related to oxidation and normal muscle and RBC chemistry Leg cramps, red blood cell breakdown
Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables, cauliflower, cabbage, eggs, peace, potatoes. Essential for normal blood clotting. hemorrhaging
Vitamin B1 Whole grain, lean meats and poultry, fish, liver, pork, poultry, organ meats, legumes, yeast. Assists in proper use of carbohydrates, normal functioning of CNS, maintaining good appetite. Appetite loss, nausea, confusion, cardiac abnormalities, muscle spasms.
  1. Describe Nutrient Analysis. Describe Activity 3.1 using Appendix B. List calories of total fat, carbohydrate, and protein in the following foods: a) 1 soda coca cola, 1 IN N OUT Double-Double Cheeseburger, 2 subway roast beef sandwich.

The following are the calories components of the different foods:

  1. Soda (Coca cola)

Total fat= 288 cal

Carb= 168 cal

Protein= 148 cal

  1. Subway roast beef sandwich

Fat= 90 cal

Carb= 312 cal

Protein- 144 cal.