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Country Profile of Australia

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Australia

Physical Geography

Australia is one of the biggest countries globally. It is ranked to be the 6th largest country. However, it is the smallest continent. It is comprised of the mainland and the islands of Tasmania and smaller islands. The capital city is Canberra. It is bordered by Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands. East Timor, and Vanuatu. Australia covers 7,686,850 Square-Kilometers. The country is surrounded by two oceans. The Pacific and the Indian Ocean. The country’s coastline stretches 34,218 Kilometers. It is the nation with the largest water territory under its control.

The country has an array of physical features. It has plateaus, coral reefs, mountains, and rainforests. A huge percentage of the country is flat but the western part is filled with plateaus and mountains. Further North, the land is covered with sandstone and gorges. Further south, the country is covered by the grassland and shrubs.

The climate is dependent on the currents. Southern areas of the country have the temperate climate. The western area has temperate, subtropical, and the grassland. The Northern areas experience the tropical and equatorial climate. The Eastern side of the country is a Desert or experiences the Grassland climate.

Population in Australia

Australia’s total population stands at 24,843, 891 people with more females as compared to the males. The total female population is approximately, 12,461,863, which represents 50.2% of the total population. On the other hand, the male population that is at 12,382,893 which cumulates to 49.8% of the population. The population is set to increase by 2018 to approximately 25 million people. The positive change is because of the increase in births and the migration reasons. However, the increase in the size is lower as compared to the mid-20th century. At the moment, the growth rate is at 1.57, whereas in the 1970’s it was at 2.74.

The country’s population stands at 3.2 people per square kilometer. In this society, a large portion of the Australians range between 15-64 years. They constitute close to 67.7% of the total population. The data presented may be inferred to mean that the nation’s birthrate is slowly decreasing. In addition, the mortality rate is relatively low. A relatively huge number of Australians can reach the age of 65 years. However, the data shows that the countries dependency ration is high. The members of the society between the ages of 0-16 and 65+ tend to rely on the others for survival and provision of their needs. The nation’s dependency ratio stands at 47.7%. However, this number is good for the economy. It may show that a relatively large percentage of the society is working. In particular, the under 15’s dependency ratio is at 27% as compared to the 65+ ration which is at 20.7%. The country’s life expectancy is at 81.8 years for both males and females.

Most of the Australians stay in the cities. By 2030, this number is projected to be more than 28 million. Some areas remain inhabited. The population density of these areas stands at 89%. Most of the cities are along the countries coast lines. Among the reasons is that the climate is favorable in these areas.

There are groups of indigenous Australians. These are the Aboriginal Australians, the Aboriginal Tasmanians, and the Torres Stait Islanders. The indigenous groups trace their roots back to Africa and Asia. In addition, Australia has a number of immigrants. These immigrants come from Europe, Asia, and Africa. This makes the country a multi-ethnic state. Most of the Australians have a European ancestry. The major ancestries are, Anglos-Celtic, English, Irish, Scottish, Italian, and German. These are descendants of former European settlers. In addition, the society is comprised of some group with Asian ancestry. They include groups such as the East Australians, Indian Australians, Afghan Australians, and the Vietnamese Australians. However, not a huge number of the Australians can trace their ancestry to Asia. The largest percentage are the Chinese Australians who occupy a 4.3% of the total population. The largest percentage of the Australians trace their roots to England, approximately 36.1%.

Australia has many immigration programs which attract foreigners. In particular, to work, study, or to stay with family. All these are programs that have been put by the government in order for them to promote immigration. Furthermore, it is easier for these individuals to get the citizenship. Provided that an individual came on the Skilled Occupation Visa, or the Family Visa, they are required to only live in the country for four years and apply for citizenship.

A section of the society come into the country on the humanitarian programs. These are mostly refugees and asylum seekers. Most of them are from Asian countries such as the Iraq and Syria. Therefore, once an individual gets the refugee status, they will be given the refugee-category visa. In some instances, the Australian government may give asylum to individuals who fear for their lives. They are therefore in the Special Humanitarian Program Visa.

The main reason for the increased immigration into the country is the favorable immigration policies. For example, they have the Adult Migrant English Programs that allow the Migrants from Non-English-speaking nations to better their English skills. They further have the settlement programs that make the resettlement program easier. They may provide the immigrant with funds to settle in the country. These are funds that can even be gotten by the Refugees and the Special Humanitarian Visa holders.

Linguistics and Religious Geography

Australia does not have a National language. However, English is the most spoken language. The English is a conglomeration of spoken and written English from the different European nations. In 2016, a census was conducted and it bore different findings. More than 70% of the population speak in English. Other languages that are spoken are Mandarin, by approximately 2.5% of the population, Arabic, by 1.4% of the society, and Vietnamese by 1.2% of the society. These other languages are mainly spoken in the homes. However, a rather huge percentage of these individuals are bilingual.

In addition, the findings showed that in the country, there were over 300 spoken languages. Further data showed that the diversity in the number of the languages spoken by nationals was greater in the cities and urban centers. It is mainly because these were areas where immigration had taken place. Further, the percentage of individuals speaking the native languages such as the Aboriginal and Torres Strait languages. The census showed that approximately 2.8% of the population speak these native languages.

The Australian constitution prohibits the government establishing a national religion. However, most of the Australians are Christians. About 52% of Australians are Christians. They are further divided into Catholics, Anglicans, and other divisions of Christianity. After Christianity, there are groups of Australians who do not conform to any religion. About 30% of the society are not religious. Muslims take up about 2.6% of the population. Other religions practiced in Australia are Buddhism, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish religions. The aboriginal groups adhere to the dreaming religion.

Economy of Australia