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corpus (pl. corpora) 226, 227 A large language database
EIL (definition) 226 A means of communication across national and linguistic boundaries
EIL learners 226 Individuals who are learning English in order to communicate with others who use English as a language of international communication.
tagged corpus 227 Coded corpus
parsed corpus 227 Corpus analyzed for grammatical structure
keyword in context (KWIC) 227 A selected word, phrase, or particle in the corpus presented down the middle of the page with a limited amount of linguistic context on either side
lexical approach to language teaching 228 Teaching  based upon the understanding that words typically do not occur in isolation, but in prefabricated chunks, or collocations
collocation 228 Computer identified prefabricated chunks that enable fluent production
corpus-based lexical chunks 228 ‘Real’ English used in teaching and learning
corpus-based dictionary 229 A dictionary whose words, meanings and examples are derived from a corpus
lexical syllabus 229 A syllabus created on prefabricated chunks.
learner corpus 231 A corpus of language data produced by learners of

a language

parallel corpora 231 A  corpus of text aligned with its translation in another language
data-driven learning (DDL) 231 The use of students to identify, classify, and generalize on the basis of language experience
ELF (definition) 233 A common means of communication for speakers of different first languages
norms of mutual intelligibility 234 Unifying norms developed by bilingual users of English and standards are developed.
EIL corpora 235 EIL language database
modernization model of curriculum development 235 The application of western models by inner-city countries to outer and expanding-circle contexts.
native-speaker fallacy 235 A belief that the educated native speaker and Inner-Circle models of English are used as the desired standard against which judgments of learner appropriacy are made.
ELF definition 236 A functional variety of English which is acquired as an addition to the speaker’s first language in order to communicate with other speakers for whom English is not their first language.corpus (pl. corpora)
cultural implications of corpus selections 239 Different cultural influence in a variety of corpora.
corpus-based critical EIL awareness program 239 A learning program where students might be encouraged to compare features of different language varieties or differences between spoken and written corpora of a given variety.


  1. Key points from Ch. 13 Author:  Flowerdew


  1. Uses of corpora include investigating patterns of lexis, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, and textual features
  2. There are 3 types of corpora: raw state tagged and parsed.
  3. Uses of corpus are both direct and indirect
  • Direct uses are the use of corpus in dictionaries, grammar and usage books and course books.
  • Indirect uses

-Teachers using corpora for further learning

– They can use corpus examples to support their explanations

-Creation of specific classroom instruction material

  • Used in ESP teachings
  1. Principles and practices for an EIL framework
  • The issue of standards –learners that want assess to different variations of English should be allowed to do so in preparation for the real world.
  • The ‘real’ English question – ‘Real’ English is just not native English but other variations as well.
  • Applications – local corpora is more useful in learning.
  • ELF –ELFA corpora can be used in EIL teachings for more effectiveness.
  • Academic and business corpora are useful because they are popularly known and can be used as examples that students relate with.
  • Cultures of learning- each corpus selection has a cultural implication that needs to be understood before it can be used in learning for effectiveness.
  • Critical language awareness- students should be allowed to compare and contrast different corpora and learn more about different parts of the world.