Communication and Miscommunication at the workplace via Email (Annotated Bibliography)

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Communication and Miscommunication at the workplace via Email (Annotated Bibliography)

Bartl, R. (2016). Impact of Netiquette on Email Communication. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ramon_Bartl/publication/310674193_Impact_of_Netiquette_on_Email_Communication/links/58353d2508ae004f74c8987c/Impact-of-Netiquette-on-Email-Communication.pdf?origin=publication_detail

According to Bartl (2016), organizations in today’s word depend immensely on the use of email for communication. Through emails, information can be exchanged to resolve equivocality and reduce uncertainty so as to complete tasks and coordinate activities. This article explores the impact of netiquette on email communication by stating that normally issues are ill-defined in the brevity of emails and as a result, the problem is a lack of clarity and not data. Notwithstanding, Bartl (2016) raises a vital issue that forms the basis of his study that based on the text-based nature of emails, this form of communication limits the ability and opportunities to convey non-verbal cues that are essential to supporting understanding of the message. Thus, this renders it difficult to convey ambiguity or emotion such as bad news or sarcasm over email. However, this article emphasizes the point that senders intentionally and unintentionally communicate emotion via emails and emotions could be the reason for miscommunication. The objective of the study conducted by Bartl (2016) in this article was to evaluate the impact of etiquette on the recipients’ level of job satisfaction, perceptions of senders’ likability or dislike for them, understanding and amount of equivocalness. The author utilized questionnaires in his research methodology whereby participants evaluated four emails samples written by a superior or subordinate. All of these emails included negative messages such as criticism or rejection, with some adhering to netiquette rules and some delivering just the content. Based on his study, Bartl (2016) came to the conclusion that email samples with netiquette significantly decreased uncertainty, improved job satisfaction and understanding and made the sender appear more favorable. This article is critical to my research because it highlights the importance of netiquette in conveying messages via email, especially bad news as it helps the recipients to understand the message and not feel disrespected. Moreover, netiquette in workplace emails leverages positive impact on job satisfaction.Communication and Miscommunication at the workplace via Email (Annotated Bibliography)

Byron, k. (2008). Carrying too Heavy a Load? The Communication and Miscommunication of Emotion by Email. Academy Of Management Review, 33(2), 309-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amr.2008.31193163

Bryon (2008) reiterates Bartl (2016) point that despite being advised not to so, email senders intentionally and unintentionally communicate emotion in this article. According to Bryon (2008), email features render miscommunication more likely and receivers usually misinterpret workplace emails as more emotionally neutral or negative that intended. The findings of the research in this article are supported by evidenced that draw on the nonverbal and computer mediated-communication, perception and emotion literature. Based on this literature foundation, Byron (2008) introduces a theoretical framework that describes the factors that make miscommunication most likely, how employees improve the accuracy of emotional communication in emails and how emotional miscommunication affects organizations. The author comes to the conclusion that recipients of workplace emails normally interpret them as more emotionally negative or neutral than in intended. This is especially the case when delivering bad news as recipients often view them as too neutral or basic to convey the emotional magnitude of the message. However, this is also a weakness or limitation of Byron’s (2008) research as it focuses mainly on the likelihood of emails being misinterpreted as neutral or negative and fails to contemplate the possibility that emails could be misinterpreted as conveying positive emotional content. This article is vital to my research as it outlines the individual-level and group-level factors that influence how workplace emails are perceived by recipients. Moreover, it highlights the need for senders to consider perception rather than expression when communicating or sending messages through emails. This is because recipients perceive emails from an emotional perspective, that is, how the message is presented rather than the content of the message as it affects how they will understand the message.

Conrad, D. (2014). Workplace Communication Problems: Inquiries by Employees and Applicable Solutions. Journal Of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 105-116.

This article explores the workplace communication problems by looking at some of the inquiries by employees and providing applicable solutions for discordant scenarios. According to Conrad (2014), communication is the lifeblood of an institution or organization and without communication tasks in the organization will not be completed. However, employees and organizations may lack the ability to learn, utilize and exploit or take advantage of good communication practices. This article explores some of the organizational communication problems and questions that were presented in a Minnesota newspaper column known as “Ask Dave” over the last four years and offers thoughtful and applicable solutions that are critical to fostering business communications learning and instruction. Based on the research conducted by Conrad (2014) on workplace problems and possible solutions, the article came to the conclusion that bad communication practices cause a majority of work problems, as well as, problems people face at home or in their personal interactions with other individuals outside of their workplaces. This is because people often pass along wrong information or just fail to pass along correct and valuable information. This article is a prominent contribution to my research as it highlights the complex nature of communication via email in workplaces that creates a lot of room for misunderstandings and conflict. Moreover, mistakes that emanate from miscommunication are likely to create damages that may cause vital employees to develop resentment towards their employers or even quit their jobs based on the failure of the senders to contemplate how their messages would be received by the recipients, especially when it is bad news that is being delivered via email. Employees want to be able to feel an emotional attachment to the emails as this helps them interpret and discern the message conveyed.Communication and Miscommunication at the workplace via Email (Annotated Bibliography)

Derks, D., Fischer, A., & Bos, A. (2008). The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: A review. Computers In Human Behavior, 24(3), 766-785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.04.004

Derks, Fischer and Bos (2008) present the argument that communication of emotions is more difficult in computer-mediated communication than when it is done face-to-face. The objective of this article was to review the empirical evidence on the role of emotion in computer-mediated communication so as to gain insight or a better understanding of whether emotions are communicated differently in face-to-face communication and computer-mediated communication. The research methodology employed by the authors entailed reviewing two types of studies, that is, studies that evaluate emotions more implicitly, including emotional styles and self-disclosure and studies that explicitly assess discrete emotional expressions and emotions in general. Based on the research conducted by Derks, Fischer and Bos (2008), the article concluded that there was no indication that computer-mediated communication is a less personally involving medium or less emotional medium that face-to-face communication. On the contrary, the authors found that emotional communication offline and online are surprisingly similar and in situations whereby differences were found, they indicated that more explicit and frequent emotion communication was evident in computer-mediated communication than in face-to-face communication. This article makes valuable contributions to our research in that it highlights the fact that people cope with the emotional expression restrictions to adapting to the restrictions present in online conversations. Since there is a need for more time to convey the same amount of information through computer-mediated communication than in face-to-face communication, people fill their conversational gaps with emoticons. This proves that computer-mediated communication is not filled with emotionally poor interactions; instead, it is filled with emotions.Communication and Miscommunication at the workplace via Email (Annotated Bibliography)

Odine, M. (2015). Communication Problems in Management. Journal Of Emerging Issues In Economics, Finance And Banking (JEIEFB) An Online International Research Journal, 4(2), 1615-1630.

As denoted by Odine (2015), management can only thrive when there is prevalent communication. According to a 2002 survey of 1,104 employees of organizations in the United States, while managers spent sixty to eighty percent of their time on operational communication, a mere seventeen percent of the participants said that their managers practiced effective communication. Thus, it is vital to take appropriate measures aimed at disentangling areas that limit or prevent effective communication in any given business organization. Moreover, Odine (2015) is of the opinion that efforts must be exhausted to formulate a business environment whereby both the staff and managers take into account the conceptualization and dissemination of communication media, as well as, the messages they convey. Given that the desired outcomes of transmitting information from the sender to the receiver is effective communication, this article not only explored but also reviewed relevant literature in the field of communication problems in management to determine the harbors of problems that lead to communication problems in management. Based on this foundation, this article also evaluated the attitudes of senders that generated poor or ineffective communication, contemplated cultural and gender insensitive implications often visible in management communication, examined media choices that are inappropriate in some communication scenarios, as well as, the prominence of putting the receiver at the center when crafting messages or information to be transmitted. The objective of the research conducted by Odine (2015) was to produce a document that presented in detail, the shortcomings in management communication, as well as, ways of creating awareness and formulating management policies that enhance good and effective communication in various business environments. The author came to the conclusion that communication problems are not only prevalent but also omnipresent in organizations or companies. As such, this article is vital to our research as it emphasizes the fact that effective communication requires a culture or climate at the workplace that espouses effective communication, especially openness, appropriate delivery of bad news, reinforcement of communication practices and shared responsibility when it comes to making communication effective.

 

References

Bartl, R. (2016). Impact of Netiquette on Email Communication. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ramon_Bartl/publication/310674193_Impact_of_Netiquette_on_Email_Communication/links/58353d2508ae004f74c8987c/Impact-of-Netiquette-on-Email-Communication.pdf?origin=publication_detail

Byron, k. (2008). Carrying too Heavy a Load? The Communication and Miscommunication of Emotion by Email. Academy Of Management Review, 33(2), 309-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amr.2008.31193163

Conrad, D. (2014). Workplace Communication Problems: Inquiries by Employees and Applicable Solutions. Journal Of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 105-116.

Derks, D., Fischer, A., & Bos, A. (2008). The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: A review. Computers In Human Behavior, 24(3), 766-785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.04.004

Odine, M. (2015). Communication Problems in Management. Journal Of Emerging Issues In Economics, Finance And Banking (JEIEFB) An Online International Research Journal, 4(2), 1615-1630.