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Clamping System and Work Table Sustainability Analysis

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Clamping System and Work Table Sustainability Analysis

The purpose of this memo is to present findings from the sustainability analysis conducted for the clamping system and work table parts for a CNC router. The selected part form one of the major components of the router and making it requires a considerable amount of raw material. Additionally, it involves high energy consumption. Since there are several materials from different sources that can be used to make it, conducting its life cycle analysis is crucial in identifying the best material, manufacturing method, and sourcing option with the most suitable energy and environmental specifications.

The life cycle analysis considers three options in materials, manufacturing processes, and sourcing to quantify the impact that selected part will have on the environmental. Assessing the embodied energy, air, and water and carbon emission will help to provide a guideline for material selection in the design of these two parts.

Life Cycle Analysis-clamping System and Work Table Sustainability Analysis

1060 Alloy

 

Manufacturing Processes Carbon Footprints Total Energy Consumed Air Acidification Water Eutrophication Manufacturing Use
Milled 4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.3E-4 kg PO4e Europe North America
Forging 3.9 kg CO2e 48 MJ 0.026 kg SO2e 8.8E-3 kg PO4e North America South America
Sand casted 4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.4E-4 kg PO4e North America South America
Milled 4.3 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.029 kg SO2e 8.8E-4 kg PO4e North America South America

 

AISI 1020

 

Manufacturing Process Carbon Footprints Total Energy Consumed Air Acidification Water Eutrophication Manufacturing Use
Milled 2.7 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.011 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e Europe North America
Forged 3.0 kg CO2e 38 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e Australia Asia
Forged 3.1 kg CO2e 37 MJ 0.014 kg SO2e 1.4E-3 kg PO4e Australia South America
Forged 3.1 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e Australia India

 

Ductile Iron-clamping System and Work Table Sustainability Analysis

 

Manufacturing Process Carbon Footprints Total Energy Consumed Air Acidification Water Eutrophication Manufacturing Use
Milled 1.2 kg CO2e 12 MJ 2.9E-3 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e Europe North America

 

 

Comparison of Ductile Iron, AISI 1020, and 1060 Alloy Manufactured Through Milling

Material Manufacturing Process Carbon Footprints Total Energy Consumed Air Acidification Water Eutrophication Sourcing
Ductile Iron Milled 1.2 kg CO2e 12 MJ 2.9E-3 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e Europe
AISI 1020 Milled 2.7 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.011 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e Europe
1060 Alloy Milled 4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.3E-4 kg PO4e Europe

 

Comparison of Milling, Forging, and Sand Casting

Manufacturing Process Material Carbon Footprints Total Energy Consumed Air Acidification Water Eutrophication Sourcing
Milling 1060 Alloy 4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.3E-4 kg PO4e Europe
  AISI 1020 2.7 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.011 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e Europe
             
  Ductile Iron 1.2 kg CO2e 12 MJ 2.9E-3 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e Europe
Forging 1060 Alloy 3.9 kg CO2e 48 MJ 0.026 kg SO2e 8.8E-3 kg PO4e North America
  AISI 1020 3.0 kg CO2e 38 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e Australia
    3.1 kg CO2e 37 MJ 0.014 kg SO2e 1.4E-3 kg PO4e Australia
    3.1 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e Australia
Sand Casting 1060 Alloy 4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.4E-4 kg PO4e North America

 

 

Comparison of Sourcing Option-clamping System and Work Table Sustainability Analysis

 

Sourcing Option Material Carbon Footprints Total Energy Consumed Air Acidification Water Eutrophication Sourcing
North America 1060 Alloy 3.9 kg CO2e 48 MJ 0.026 kg SO2e 8.8E-3 kg PO4e South America
    4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.4E-4 kg PO4e South America
    4.3 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.029 kg SO2e 8.8E-4 kg PO4e South America
Europe   4.2 kg CO2e 52 MJ 0.028 kg SO2e 9.3E-4 kg PO4e North America
Australia AISI 1020 3.0 kg CO2e 38 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e Asia
    3.1 kg CO2e 37 MJ 0.014 kg SO2e 1.4E-3 kg PO4e South America
    3.1 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e India
Europe   3.1 kg CO2e 36 MJ 0.013 kg SO2e 1.3E-3 kg PO4e North America
Europe Ductile Iron 1.2 kg CO2e 12 MJ 2.9E-3 kg SO2e 1.1E-3 kg PO4e North America

 

 

The life cycle analysis conducted involved comparing three different bed work materials namely ductile iron, AISI 1020, and 1060 alloy manufactured through milling and used to make the clamping system and work table for the CNC router with respect to the embodied carbon footprints, total energy consumption, air acidification, and water eutrophication. For every manufacturing process, these factors were also quantified while considering each material and the sourcing. Lastly, the life cycle analysis was done by comparing the sourcing option against the types of material and manufacturing options available. The details are presented in the table above.

After analyzing the three materials, it was found that ductile iron manufactured through milling has the least impact on the environment. Its carbon emission is the lowest at 1.2 kg CO2e. Moreover, it has a low energy requirement of 12MJ.  By producing just 2.9E-3 kg of SO2e, this material will result in the lowest level of eutrophication that can be achieved. The analysis shows that milling will have the least impact on the environment while sand casting will have the greatest impact.  Additionally, it was found that 1060 alloy that is sourced from North America has high carbon footprints, consume more energy, and contribute significantly to air acidification and water eutrophication. On the other hand, ductile iron and AISI 1020 sourced from Australia or Europe has less impact on the environment.

Based on the sustainability life cycle analysis conducted, it is recommended that ductile iron is used to make the clamping system and work table for the CNC router. This material should be manufactured through the milling process. Moreover, it should be sourced from Europe. A ductile iron used to make the CNC router’s clamping system and work table processed by milling and sourced from Europe will produce the least environmental impact that can be achieved. It will contribute to the lowest carbon emission of  1.2 kg, will have the least energy requirement at just 12 MJ, and the lowest levels of air acidification and water eutrophication at 2.9E-3 kg SO2e and 1.1E-3 kg PO4e respectively, resulting in an energy efficient and environmentally friendly design.Clamping System and Work Table Sustainability Analysis