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Cell Pathology

  1. The components of a cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. The functions of a cell are gene expression, energy generation, cellular respiration, production of ATP, protein synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis and other metabolic functions.
  2. Homeostasis is steady state of a functioning cell and its surrounding. Integrated response of the cell to external stimuli is how the cell reacts to external stimuli. A cell where the stimulus has been removed either reverses back to normal or faces necrosis.
  3. Reversible cell injury is injury that occurs only as a result of cellular swelling.
  4. Cytoplasmic changes in reversible cell injury occur by the appearance of small or large lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Hydropic change in a cell occurs when there is an influx of water and sodium into the cell through the injured cell membrane and causes the cell to swell.
  5. In reversible cell injury, the cells recover to their normal function. In irreversible cell injury, the cell dies.Cell Pathology

Both cell injuries occur as a result environmental stimuli on the cell.

  1. Hypoxia, Anoxia, microbes, immune reactions and genetic and metabolic disorders.
  2. Three types of cell adaptations are Atrophy, Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia.

Atrophy- is the decrease in cell size occurs in organs such as the brain.

Hypertrophy is the increase in cell size and occurs mostly in the heart and kidneys and is the increase in intracellular protein.

Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells as a result of cell division and is common in bone marrow cells, intestines and liver.

  1. Three examples of atrophy are loss of brain cells, the uterus after child birth and the ova in cases where fertilization has not occurred.
  2. Hypertrophy is the increase in cell size and occurs mostly in the heart and kidneys and is the increase in intracellular protein. Hyperplasia on the other hand is an increase in the number of cells as a result of cell division and is common in bone marrow cells, intestines and liver.
  3. Metaplasia is the replacement of a distinct cell with a different functioning cell while Dysplasia is the increased growth of immature cells where mature cells are supposed to grow. Metaplasia is not carcinogenic in nature as the effects can be reversed but dysplasia is carcinogenic and non-reversible. An example of Dysplasia is cervical cancer. An example of intestinal metaplasia.
  4. Lipids are organic compounds that are insoluble in water e.g. Fatty acids

Cholesterol is a fatty compound found in cells.

Proteins are body building compound used in the repair and build of the body.

Pigments are the natural coloring in tissues.

  1.  The pathogenesis of a fatty liver starts with the accumulation of triglyceride which opens up the liver to injury by creating hepatic fat accumulation. Oxidative stress, dysfunction of the mitochondria and inflammation also increase chances of liver fibrosis.
  2. The significance of cellular aging include suppressing tumor causing cells, it is helpful in researching cures for age related diseases, it helps in creation of anticancer therapies.Cell Pathology
  3. Necrosis is the death of many cells or all cells in the tissue or organ as a result of disease, injury or lack of blood supply. Apoptosis on the other hand is the normal death of cells that occurs to facilitate growth in organisms.
  4. Examples of: Coagulative necrosis- syphilis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infraction

Liquefactive necrosis- pancreatitis, abscess, pyelonephritis, brain inlarclion

Caseous necrosis- tuberculosis lesions

Enzymatic necrosis- pancreatic injuries

  1. Metastatic Calcification occurs in previously normal tissue while Dystrophic Calcification occurs in previously damaged tissue.

 

Section 2

  • Adaptations- changes made by a cell in response to adverse environmental changes.
  • Aging- the decline of cell functions and the lifespan of cells due to external influences.
  • Alanine aminotransferase- an enzyme found in the liver and kidney in low levels but increases when there is cell damage.
  • Anoxia- the complete loss of oxygen to the brain.
  • Anthracosis-a condition caused by the accumulation of carbon in the lungs due to inhalation of smoke or coal dust particles or repeated exposure to polluted air.
  • Apoptosis- normal cell death.
  • Aspartate aminotransferase- is an enzyme found in body cells in low levels but increases when there is an injury.
  • Atresia- it a condition that makes passage in the body impossible because the passage is absent or closed.
  • Atrophy- decrease in a body part or tissues due to cell death.
  • Autophagosomes- they are vesicles that have double membranes containing material awaiting autophagy.
  • Calcification- the accumulation of calcium salts in body tissue.
  • Chromatin- a mass of DNA material that condenses to form chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division.
  • Cytoplasmic organelles- a cell structure surrounded by membranes that functions as the formation of lysosomes and degradation of materials.
  • Cytoskeleton- a network of protein fibers that give cells shape and support.
  • Death- the destruction of cells.
  • Gangrene- the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply caused by injury or infection.
  • Golgi apparatus- organelles found in eukaryotic cell involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
  • Hemosiderin- a pigment formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin.
  • Heterophagosomes- a cell vacuole produced but phagocytosis.
  • Homeostasis- steady state of a functioning cell and its surrounding.
  • Hyaloplasm- clear fluid of cytoplasm made up of water, minerals. Ions, etc.
  • Hydropic change in a cell occurs when there is an influx of water and sodium into the cell through the injured cell membrane and causes the cell to swell.
  • Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells as a result of cell division and is common in bone marrow cells, intestines and liver.
  • Hypertrophy is the increase in cell size and occurs mostly in the heart and kidneys and is the increase in intracellular protein.
  • Hypoxia is lack of adequate oxygen to a particular part of the body.
  • Intermediate filaments are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrates.Cell Pathology
  • An intracellular accumulation is accumulation of water, lipids, carbohydrates and other materials in a cell.
  • Lactate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate and back.
  • Lipid accumulation is the accumulation of lipids in the liver and muscle.
  • Lipofuscin is pigment produced from lysosomal digestion.
  • Lysosomes are membrane bound organelles containing degradative enzymes.
  • Metaplasia is the replacement of a distinct cell with a different functioning cell
  • Microfilaments are polymers of protein actin.
  • Microtubules are polymers of tubulin.
  • Mitochondria are rod shaped organelles involved in the formation of ATP.
  • Necrosis is the death of many cells or all cells in the tissue or organ as a result of disease, injury or lack of blood supply
  • Nucleus is the organelle containing DNA.