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Categorical Syllogisms

An argument which has two categorical propositions for premises and one categorical proposition as the conclusion. (Each proposition has two different terms.)

Has exactly three terms, each occurring in two propositions.

The premise which has the major term is called the major premise.

To put the argument into standard form, one must place the major premise first.

The premise with the minor term is called the minor premise. In standard form the minor premise is placed second. In other words, if the predicate term of the conclusion is in the second premise, the argument is not in standard form and it must be rewritten with the premises switched to put it in standard form.

Middle Term

The term which occurs in both premises.

Major Term

The term which occurs as the predicate term in the conclusion.

Minor Term

The subject of the conclusion.

Mood

By putting syllogisms in standard form we can identify the kinds of proposition each premise and conclusion is, merely by stating the vowel names in order.

Figure

One can know the complete logical form of any categorical syllogism. The logical form, not the content, completely determines whether the argument is valid or invalid and so is very important.

Refers to the configuration of the middle terms in the premises. If the middle term is the subject term of the major premise and the predicate of the minor premise, then the figure is 1st. If the middle term is predicate of both premises, then the figure is 2nd. If the middle term is subject of both, then the figure is 3rd. If the middle term is predicate of the major and subject of the minor, the figure is 4th.

Validity

The truth of the premises necessitates the truth of the conclusion, indeed guarantees the truth of the conclusion.

The Rules of Validity

  1. The middle term must be distributed at least once.
    2. If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in its premise.
    3. If one of the premises is negative, then the conclusion must be negative, and if the conclusion is negative, then one of the premises must be negative.
    4. There must not be two negative premises.

 

  • Question 1

4 out of 4 points

Which terms are distributed in an E proposition?
Selected Answer: b.

subject and predicate

Answers: a.

There isn’t enough information to answer.

b.

subject and predicate

c.

none

d.

predicate only

e.

subject only

  • Question 2

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
No drug legal in America is a hallucinogenic drug.
Some chemical compounds are hallucinogenic drugs.
Some chemical compounds are not drugs legal in America.

What is the minor term of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: c.

drug legal in America

Answers: a.

America

b.

chemical compound

c.

drug legal in America

d.

hallucinogenic drug

e.

drug

  • Question 3

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
No drug legal in America is a hallucinogenic drug.
Some chemical compounds are hallucinogenic drugs.
Some chemical compounds are not drugs legal in America.

What is the major term of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: b.

chemical compound

Answers: a.

America

b.

chemical compound

c.

drug legal in America

d.

hallucinogenic drug

e.

drug

  • Question 4

4 out of 4 points

The following Venn diagrams were constructed using the traditional view of existential import. Is the syllogism valid?

 

Selected Answer: a.

No, because the conclusion shows that something is both S and P, but the premises only show that this might be true.

Answers: a.

No, because the conclusion shows that something is both S and P, but the premises only show that this might be true.

b.

No, because there are more Xs in the premises than in the conclusion.

c.

No, because there is shading in the premises that does not appear in the conclusion.

d.

There is not enough information to determine the answer.

e.

Yes.

  • Question 5

4 out of 4 points

According to the rules of validity, which terms must be distributed in the unstated premise of the following enthymeme?
All banks are institutions with government-insured deposits.
________________________________________________
No hedge fund is a bank.
Selected Answer: d.

hedge fund and institutions with government-insured deposits

Answers: a.

hedge fund only

b.

institutions with government-insured deposits only

c.

banks only

d.

hedge fund and institutions with government-insured deposits

e.

hedge fund and banks

  • Question 6

0 out of 4 points

When using a Venn diagram to analyze a syllogism with the traditional view of existential import, universal propositions are marked by:
Selected Answer: e.

placing an X somewhere in the circle belonging to the subject term, and another X somewhere in the circle belonging to the predicate term

Answers: a.

shading out the entire circle belonging to the predicate term

b.

placing two Xs somewhere in the circle belonging to the subject term

c.

shading out the entire circle belonging to the subject term

d.

shading part of the circle belonging to the subject term, and then placing one or two Xs elsewhere

e.

placing an X somewhere in the circle belonging to the subject term, and another X somewhere in the circle belonging to the predicate term

  • Question 7

4 out of 4 points

Can two of the three terms in a categorical syllogism be identical?
Selected Answer: b.

Yes, but one of the propositions would either be false or trivially true.

Answers: a.

Yes, but two of the propositions would have to be identical.

b.

Yes, but one of the propositions would either be false or trivially true.

c.

Yes, but only if they are the major and minor terms.

d.

No, because such a syllogism could not be valid.

e.

No, because such a syllogism could not be sound.

  • Question 8

4 out of 4 points

A syllogism is an argument with how many premises?
Selected Answer: c.

two

Answers: a.

four or more

b.

three

c.

two

d.

one

e.

none

  • Question 9

4 out of 4 points

How many possible figures are there for categorical syllogisms?
Selected Answer: c.

4

Answers: a.

2

b.

12

c.

4

d.

64

e.

256

  • Question 10

4 out of 4 points

The predicate term is distributed in propositions that are:
Selected Answer: e.

negative

Answers: a.

particular

b.

affirmative

c.

true

d.

universal

e.

negative

  • Question 11

4 out of 4 points

What conclusion follows from the two premises represented in this Venn diagram?
Selected Answer: b.

No S is P.

Answers: a.

Some S are not P.

b.

No S is P.

c.

Some S are P.

d.

Some P are not S.

e.

All S are P.

  • Question 12

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
All mammals are animals that breathe by means of lungs.
All whales are mammals.
All whales are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

What is the figure of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: b.

4

Answers: a.

1

b.

4

c.

2

d.

5

e.

3

  • Question 13

0 out of 4 points

Which terms are distributed in a negative singular proposition?
Selected Answer: b.

subject only

Answers: a.

subject and predicate

b.

subject only

c.

predicate only

d.

none

e.

There isn’t enough information to answer.

  • Question 14

0 out of 4 points

If the middle term is the predicate of the major premise but the subject of the minor premise, then the syllogism’s figure is:
Selected Answer: b.

2

Answers: a.

3

b.

2

c.

1

d.

5

e.

4

  • Question 15

4 out of 4 points

What is the unstated premise in the following syllogism?
Carmen only lets her daughter watch shows that are educational. So she doesn’t let her watch some shows on PBS.
Selected Answer: c.

Some shows on PBS are not educational.

Answers: a.

Carmen has a daughter.

b.

Carmen doesn’t get PBS.

c.

Some shows on PBS are not educational.

d.

Carmen’s daughter wants to watch PBS.

e.

Carmen controls which television shows her daughter watches.

  • Question 16

4 out of 4 points

What is the unstated conclusion in the following syllogism?
Anyone who drives a car across the police department lawn is looking for trouble. That’s what Mitch did last night.
Selected Answer: a.

Mitch was looking for trouble.

Answers: a.

Mitch was looking for trouble.

b.

Mitch is a police officer.

c.

Mitch has a driver’s license.

d.

Mitch owns a car.

e.

Mitch was arrested last night.

  • Question 17

0 out of 4 points

A categorical syllogism is valid if:
Selected Answer: b.

the Venn diagram of the premises does not contain any information beyond what is contained in the Venn diagram of the conclusion

Answers: a.

the Venn diagram of the premises has only Xs and no shading

b.

the Venn diagram of the premises does not contain any information beyond what is contained in the Venn diagram of the conclusion

c.

the Venn diagram of the premises has only shading and no Xs

d.

the Venn diagram of the conclusion does not contain any information beyond what is contained in the Venn diagram of the premises

e.

the Venn diagram of the premises and the Venn diagram of the conclusion contain exactly the same information

  • Question 18

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
All family-oriented television shows are shows that can be aired during prime time.
Some animated television shows are not shows that can be aired during prime time.
Some animated television shows are not family-oriented television shows.

What is the major term of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: b.

animated television show

Answers: a.

family-oriented television show

b.

animated television show

c.

prime time

d.

show that can be aired during prime time

e.

television show

  • Question 19

0 out of 4 points

If we assume the modern view of existential import, why is the following syllogism invalid?
Some terrorists support an independent Palestinian state.
John Smith supports an independent Palestinian state.
John Smith is a terrorist.
Selected Answer: a.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

Answers: a.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

b.

illicit major or minor term

c.

undistributed middle

d.

universal premises with particular conclusion

e.

two negative premises

  • Question 20

0 out of 4 points

The following enthymeme is represented in Venn diagrams using the traditional view of existential import. What is the missing premise?

 

Selected Answer: d.

Some M are not S.

Answers

 

a.

No S is M.

b.

Some S are M.

c.

Some S are not M.

d.

Some M are not S.

e.

No M is S.

  • Question 21

0 out of 4 points

The following Venn diagram was constructed using the traditional view of existential import, and represents exactly one proposition. What is that proposition?
Selected Answer: b.

Some S are P.

Answers: a.

No S is P.

b.

Some S are P.

c.

Some S are not P.

d.

All S are P.

e.

All P are S.

  • Question 22

0 out of 4 points

Could an enthymeme be missing both premises?
Selected Answer: a.

No, because then it would be impossible to identify the major and minor terms.

Answers: a.

No, because then it would be impossible to identify the major and minor terms.

b.

No, because then it would simply be a conclusion, not an argument.

c.

No, because the major premise can never be missing from an enthymeme.

d.

Yes, but it would be harder to determine two missing premises than one.

e.

Yes, because it is common that people provide a conclusion without any premises.

  • Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Suppose that in the Venn diagram of the premises of a categorical syllogism, there is an X on the line between areas 2 and 3. But in the diagram of the conclusion, the X is on the line between areas 2 and 5. Is the syllogism valid?
Selected Answer: a.

No, because proving that something exists either in area 2 or area 3 is not enough to prove that something exists either in area 2 or area 5 (it could exist only in area 3).

Answers: a.

No, because proving that something exists either in area 2 or area 3 is not enough to prove that something exists either in area 2 or area 5 (it could exist only in area 3).

b.

Yes, because the two Xs border the same area, area 2.

c.

Yes, because if something exists in either area 2 or area 3, then necessarily something exists in area 2 or area 5.

d.

Yes, because there is no shading to consider.

e.

No, because the Xs are not in precisely the same place in the two diagrams, which is a requirement for validity.

  • Question 24

0 out of 4 points

If the middle term is the subject of both the major and minor premises, then the syllogism’s figure is:
Selected Answer: e.

1

Answers: a.

5

b.

4

c.

3

d.

2

e.

1

  • Question 25

0 out of 4 points

What is the figure of the syllogism?
Selected Answer: a.

1

Answers: a.

1

b.

2

c.

3

d.

4

e.

5

  • Question 1

0 out of 4 points

The form of a categorical syllogism consists of:
Selected Answer: d.

three letters

Answers: a.

two letters and a number

b.

two letters

c.

three letters and a number

d.

three letters

e.

a single number

  • Question 2

0 out of 4 points

What is the form of the following syllogism?

 

Selected Answer: b.

OAO-1

Answers: a.

EIO-3

b.

OAO-1

c.

AII-4

d.

IEI-1

e.

AOO-2

  • Question 3

4 out of 4 points

The predicate term is distributed in propositions that are:
Selected Answer: c.

negative

Answers: a.

true

b.

particular

c.

negative

d.

universal

e.

affirmative

  • Question 4

4 out of 4 points

What is the unstated premise in the following syllogism?
Carmen only lets her daughter watch shows that are educational. So she doesn’t let her watch some shows on PBS.
Selected Answer: b.

Some shows on PBS are not educational.

Answers: a.

Carmen’s daughter wants to watch PBS.

b.

Some shows on PBS are not educational.

c.

Carmen doesn’t get PBS.

d.

Carmen controls which television shows her daughter watches.

e.

Carmen has a daughter.

  • Question 5

0 out of 4 points

What two propositions are represented by the following Venn diagram?
Selected Answer: d.

Some S are not M and No M is P.

Answers: a.

All S are M and No S is P.

b.

All P are M and No S is M.

c.

No S is M and No P is M.

d.

Some S are not M and No M is P.

e.

Some S are M and Some P are M.

  • Question 6

4 out of 4 points

Is the term “whales” distributed?
Selected Answer: c.

It depends on the proposition in which the term “whales” is used.

Answers: a.

No, because the term is a noun.

b.

No, because whales only live in the ocean and not on every part of the earth.

c.

It depends on the proposition in which the term “whales” is used.

d.

Yes, because it is a class of things.

e.

Yes, because there are different kinds of whales.

  • Question 7

0 out of 4 points

How many of the five rules of validity could be applied without examining the conclusion?
Selected Answer: c.

4

Answers: a.

0

b.

5

c.

4

d.

2

e.

3

  • Question 8

4 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
No drug legal in America is a hallucinogenic drug.
Some chemical compounds are hallucinogenic drugs.
Some chemical compounds are not drugs legal in America.

What is the middle term of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: c.

hallucinogenic drug

Answers: a.

America

b.

chemical compound

c.

hallucinogenic drug

d.

drug

e.

drug legal in America

  • Question 9

4 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
All family-oriented television shows are shows that can be aired during prime time.
Some animated television shows are not shows that can be aired during prime time.
Some animated television shows are not family-oriented television shows.

What is the mood of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: b.

AOO

Answers: a.

AEE

b.

AOO

c.

EIA

d.

EIO

e.

OEO

  • Question 10

0 out of 4 points

What conclusion follows from the two premises represented in this Venn diagram?
Selected Answer: b.

Some S are not P.

Answers: a.

All P are S.

b.

Some S are not P.

c.

Some S are P.

d.

All S are P.

e.

No S is P.

  • Question 11

0 out of 4 points

Are particular propositions represented differently on Venn diagrams when using the traditional view of existential import than when using the modern view?
Selected Answer: b.

Yes, because if we are using the traditional view, they are simply marked with an X, but if we are using the modern view, then it is also necessary to shade an area.

Answers: a.

No, because in either case, they are simply marked by shading.

b.

Yes, because if we are using the traditional view, they are simply marked with an X, but if we are using the modern view, then it is also necessary to shade an area.

c.

No, because in either case, they are simply marked with an X.

d.

No, because in either case, they are simply marked by shading one area and placing an X in another.

e.

Yes, because if we are using the modern view, they are simply marked with an X, but if we are using the traditional view, then it is also necessary to shade an area.

  • Question 12

0 out of 4 points

The form of a categorical syllogism is a(n):
Selected Answer: a.

indication of where the middle term appears in the premises

Answers: a.

indication of where the middle term appears in the premises

b.

estimation of how listeners will feel about the conclusion

c.

identification of its mood and figure

d.

list of the forms of its premises and conclusion

e.

determination of whether the conclusion is true or false

  • Question 13

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
All mammals are animals that breathe by means of lungs.
All whales are mammals.
All whales are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

What is the major premise of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: b.

All whales are animals.

Answers: a.

All mammals are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

b.

All whales are animals.

c.

All whales are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

d.

All whales are mammals.

e.

All mammals are animals.

  • Question 14

0 out of 4 points

Suppose that a syllogism has four terms: uncommunicative people, communicative people, Ruth, and people who make friends easily. Can the rules of validity determine whether or not the syllogism is valid?
Selected Answer: c.

No, because the rules of validity cannot be used when one of the terms is a proper name.

Answers: a.

Yes, but only after immediate inference is used to collapse the first two terms into one.

b.

Yes, but only after immediate inference is used to expand the number of terms to six.

c.

No, because the rules of validity cannot be used when one of the terms is a proper name.

d.

Yes, the rules can be applied without first making any changes to the syllogism.

e.

No, because it is impossible to put the syllogism into standard form.

  • Question 15

0 out of 4 points

If we are solving an enthymeme and one premise is an O proposition, then the other premise:
Selected Answer: a.

can only be an I or O proposition

Answers: a.

can only be an I or O proposition

b.

can be any proposition

c.

can only be an I proposition

d.

can only be an A or I proposition

e.

can only be an A proposition

  • Question 16

4 out of 4 points

An argument is valid if:
Selected Answer: a.

it has a structure such that the truth of the premises would guarantee the truth of the conclusion

Answers: a.

it has a structure such that the truth of the premises would guarantee the truth of the conclusion

b.

the premises are true

c.

the premises and conclusion are all true

d.

most people would agree with the conclusion

e.

the conclusion is true

  • Question 17

4 out of 4 points

How many possible figures are there for categorical syllogisms?
Selected Answer: e.

4

Answers: a.

12

b.

2

c.

64

d.

256

e.

4

  • Question 18

4 out of 4 points

What is the unstated premise in the following syllogism?
There are no weeds in my garden, so at least a few grasses are not weeds.
Selected Answer: a.

There are grasses in my garden.

Answers: a.

There are grasses in my garden.

b.

Many grasses are weeds.

c.

My garden does not need to be weeded.

d.

I weeded my garden.

e.

It is bad to have weeds in a garden.

  • Question 19

0 out of 4 points

What is the form of the following syllogism?
Some crimes against property are frauds.
All frauds are felonies.
Some felonies are crimes against property.
Selected Answer: c.

OEO-2

Answers: a.

IAI-2

b.

IAI-4

c.

OEO-2

d.

OAI-1

e.

OAO-1

  • Question 20

4 out of 4 points

Every categorical proposition involves _____ distinct term(s).
Selected Answer: b.

two

Answers: a.

eight

b.

two

c.

one

d.

three

e.

six

  • Question 21

0 out of 4 points

If we were given a list of three terms used in a categorical syllogism, and also the conclusion, could we determine which is the major term, which is the minor term, and which is the middle term?
Selected Answer: e.

We could only determine which is the major term and which is the minor term.

Answers: a.

We could only determine which is the middle term.

b.

We could determine which is which for all three terms.

c.

We could only determine which is the major term.

d.

We could only determine which is the minor term.

e.

We could only determine which is the major term and which is the minor term.

  • Question 22

4 out of 4 points

If the middle term is the predicate of the major premise but the subject of the minor premise, then the syllogism’s figure is:
Selected Answer: b.

4

Answers: a.

5

b.

4

c.

3

d.

1

e.

2

  • Question 23

4 out of 4 points

Can two of the three terms in a categorical syllogism be identical?
Selected Answer: a.

Yes, but one of the propositions would either be false or trivially true.

Answers: a.

Yes, but one of the propositions would either be false or trivially true.

b.

Yes, but two of the propositions would have to be identical.

c.

No, because such a syllogism could not be valid.

d.

Yes, but only if they are the major and minor terms.

e.

No, because such a syllogism could not be sound.

  • Question 24

0 out of 4 points

If we assume the traditional view of existential import, why is the following syllogism invalid?
No university is an elementary school.
Some educational institutions are not elementary schools.
Some educational institutions are not universities.
Selected Answer: b.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

Answers: a.

undistributed middle

b.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

c.

two negative premises

d.

illicit major term

e.

illicit minor term

  • Question 25

0 out of 4 points

Which terms must appear in the unstated premise of the following enthymeme?
All chairs are furniture.
___________________
Some furniture is not comfortable.
Selected Answer: a.

furniture and comfortable things

Answers: a.

furniture and comfortable things

b.

chairs and furniture

c.

uncomfortable things

d.

There is not enough information to determine the answer.

e.

comfortable things and chairs

 

  • uestion 1

4 out of 4 points

A term is distributed in a proposition if the:
Selected Answer: d.

proposition asserts something about every member of the class designated by the term

Answers: a.

word “and” is used to join the term with one or more other terms

b.

proposition uses the term both as its subject and as its predicate

c.

proposition uses the term more than once

d.

proposition asserts something about every member of the class designated by the term

e.

proposition doesn’t mention the term explicitly

  • Question 2

4 out of 4 points

An argument is valid if:
Selected Answer: a.

it has a structure such that the truth of the premises would guarantee the truth of the conclusion

Answers: a.

it has a structure such that the truth of the premises would guarantee the truth of the conclusion

b.

the premises are true

c.

the conclusion is true

d.

most people would agree with the conclusion

e.

the premises and conclusion are all true

  • Question 3

0 out of 4 points

If we assume the modern view of existential import, why is the syllogism EOO-2 invalid?
Selected Answer: c.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

Answers: a.

undistributed middle

b.

illicit major or minor term

c.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

d.

two negative premises

e.

universal premises with particular conclusion

  • Question 4 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

In the Venn diagram of a categorical syllogism, the overlap of the S and M circles includes areas 2 and 3. So how should the proposition “Some S are M” be diagrammed?
Selected Answer: c.

Put an X in area 2 and another in area 3.

Answers: a.

Put an X in area 2 only.

b.

Put an X on the line between areas 2 and 3.

c.

Put an X in area 2 and another in area 3.

d.

The proposition cannot be diagrammed unless area 2 or area 3 is shaded out.

e.

Put an X in area 3 only.

  • Question 5 Categorical Syllogisms

4 out of 4 points

The form of a categorical syllogism is a(n):
Selected Answer: c.

identification of its mood and figure

Answers: a.

determination of whether the conclusion is true or false

b.

list of the forms of its premises and conclusion

c.

identification of its mood and figure

d.

indication of where the middle term appears in the premises

e.

estimation of how listeners will feel about the conclusion

  • Question 6

4 out of 4 points

What proposition is the missing premise of this enthymeme?

 

Selected Answer: a.

Some S are not M.

Answers: a.

Some S are not M.

b.

Some P are M.

c.

Some M are S.

d.

All P are M.

e.

No M is S.

  • Question 7 Categorical Syllogisms

4 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
All mammals are animals that breathe by means of lungs.
All whales are mammals.
All whales are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

What is the major premise of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: d.

All mammals are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

Answers: a.

All mammals are animals.

b.

All whales are animals.

c.

All whales are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

d.

All mammals are animals that breathe by means of lungs.

e.

All whales are mammals.

  • Question 8 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
All family-oriented television shows are shows that can be aired during prime time.
Some animated television shows are not shows that can be aired during prime time.
Some animated television shows are not family-oriented television shows.

In a categorical syllogism, the premises are:

Selected Answer: a.

independent in traditional logic but dependent in modern logic

Answers: a.

independent in traditional logic but dependent in modern logic

b.

neither independent nor dependent

c.

sometimes independent, sometimes dependent

d.

always dependent

e.

always independent

  • Question 9 Categorical Syllogisms

4 out of 4 points

The following Venn diagrams were constructed using the traditional view of existential import. Is the syllogism valid?

 

Selected Answer: a.

No, because the conclusion shows that something is both S and P, but the premises only show that this might be true.

Answers: a.

No, because the conclusion shows that something is both S and P, but the premises only show that this might be true.

b.

There is not enough information to determine the answer.

c.

Yes.

d.

No, because there is shading in the premises that does not appear in the conclusion.

e.

No, because there are more Xs in the premises than in the conclusion.

  • Question 10 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

What is the form of the following syllogism?

 

Selected Answer: e.

OOO-2, OOO-3, or OOO-4

Answers: a.

III-1, III-2, III-3, or III-4

b.

OIO–2 or OIO-4

c.

AEA-3 or AEA-2

d.

IOI-1 or IOI-3

e.

OOO-2, OOO-3, or OOO-4

  • Question 11 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

A standard three-circle Venn diagram contains seven regions. If we represent propositions using the traditional view of existential import, how many of the seven regions are needed to represent the premises of a categorical syllogism?
Selected Answer: c.

any number between 4 and 6

Answers: a.

4 or 6

b.

always 4

c.

any number between 4 and 6

d.

any number between 3 and 7

e.

always 6

  • Question 12

0 out of 4 points

For the next seven questions, consider the following syllogism:
No drug legal in America is a hallucinogenic drug.
Some chemical compounds are hallucinogenic drugs.
Some chemical compounds are not drugs legal in America.

What is the major premise of the syllogism?

Selected Answer: b.

There are no drugs legal in America.

Answers: a.

Some chemical compounds are hallucinogenic drugs.

b.

There are no drugs legal in America.

Categorical Syllogisms c.

Chemical compounds are hallucinogenic.

d.

No drug legal in America is a hallucinogenic drug.

e.

Some chemical compounds are not drugs legal in America.

  • Question 13

0 out of 4 points

Which terms must appear in the unstated premise of the following argument?
No pair of blue jeans is an item of clothing made of silk. Therefore some expensive items of clothing are not pairs of blue jeans.
Selected Answer: b.Categorical Syllogisms

There isn’t enough information to be sure.

Answers: a.

items of clothing and blue jeans

b.

There isn’t enough information to be sure.

c.

items of clothing and expensive items of clothing

d.

items of clothing made of silk and blue jeans

e.

items of clothing made of silk and expensive items of clothing

  • Question 14 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

What proposition is the missing premise of this enthymeme?

 

Selected Answer: c.

All M are S.

Answers: a.

Some S are not M.

b.

All S are M.

c.

All M are S.

d.

Some S are P.

e.

No S is M.

  • Question 15

0 out of 4 points

What conclusion follows from the two premises represented in this Venn diagram?
Selected Answer:Categorical Syllogisms b.

Some S are not P.

Answers: a.

Some P are not S.

b.

Some S are not P.

c.

No S is P.

d.

All S are P.

e.

Some S are P.

  • Question 16 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

The following enthymeme is represented in Venn diagrams using the traditional view of existential import. What is the missing premise?

 

Selected Answer: c.

No M is S.

Answers:Categorical Syllogisms a.

Some S are M.

b.

No S is M.

c.

No M is S.

d.

Some M are not S.

e.

Some S are not M.

  • Question 17

0 out of 4 points

How many possible forms are there for categorical syllogisms?
Selected Answer:Categorical Syllogisms b.

4

Answers: a.

256

b.

4

c.

2

d.

64

Categorical Syllogisms e.

12

  • Question 18

4 out of 4 points

Can an invalid argument have a true conclusion?
Selected Answer: a.

Yes, because invalid arguments can have true or false conclusions.

Answers: a.

Yes, because invalid arguments can have true or false conclusions.

b.

Yes, but only if there are more than two premises.

c.

No, because then it would be valid.

d.

Yes, because invalid arguments always have true conclusions.

e.

No, because conclusions are never true or false.

  • Question 19 Categorical Syllogisms

4 out of 4 points

Which terms are distributed in an A proposition?
Selected Answer: c.

subject only

Answers: a.

none

b.

subject and predicate

c.

subject only

d.

predicate only

e.

There isn’t enough information to answer.

  • Question 20

0 out of 4 points

Categorical Syllogisms
Can the four (or five) rules of validity be used to test the validity of every syllogism?
Selected Answer: d.

Yes, because they can be adapted to traditional or modern logic.

Answers: a.

No, because some syllogisms are not categorical.

b.

Yes, because they are very general rules.

c.

No, because some valid categorical syllogisms violate the rules.

d.

Yes, because they can be adapted to traditional or modern logic.

e.

Yes, because they consider the form of the syllogism rather than its content.

  • Question 21 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

If the major premise of a valid syllogism is an I proposition, what form(s) can the conclusion have?
Selected Answer: c.

I or O

Answers: a.

A or I

b.

A or E

Categorical Syllogisms c.

I or O

d.

E or O

e.

only I

  • Question 22

0 out of 4 points

If we are solving an enthymeme and the conclusion is an A proposition, then the premises:
Selected Answer: b.

must be an A proposition and an I proposition

Answers: a.

must both be E propositions

b.

must be an A proposition and an I proposition

c.

must both be A propositions

d.

must both be I propositions

e.

can be any propositions

  • Question 23

4 out of 4 points

If we are solving an enthymeme with a missing conclusion, and one premise is an O proposition, then the conclusion:
Selected Answer: a.

can only be an O proposition

Answers: a.

can only be an O proposition

b.Categorical Syllogisms

can be any proposition

c.

can only be an E or O proposition

d.

can only be an I or O proposition

e.

can only be an E proposition

  • Question 24 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

If we assume the modern view of existential import, why is the following syllogism invalid?
All vertebrates reproduce sexually.
All vertebrates are animals.
All animals reproduce sexually.
Selected Answer: a.

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

Answers: a.Categorical Syllogisms

negative premise with affirmative conclusion, or negative conclusion with no negative premise

b.

universal premises with particular conclusion

c.

undistributed middle

d.

illicit major or minor term

e.

two negative premises

  • Question 25 Categorical Syllogisms

0 out of 4 points

Is this syllogism valid?

 

Selected Answer: b.

No, because there are two Xs in the premises, but only one in the conclusion.

Answers: a.

Yes.

b.

No, because there are two Xs in the premises, but only one in the conclusion.

c.

No, because the conclusion makes a narrower claim than the premises.

d.

No, because the premises make a narrower claim than the conclusion.

e.

There is not enough information to determine the answer.