Answer the question’s in essay form. Along with referring to the indicated reading (“Licentious Liberty” IN A BRAZILIAN GOLD-MINING REGION) your answers must also demostrate that you undertstand the chronological and geographical dimensions of the question.
1) With reference to Higgins’ Licentious Liberty, examine how slavery shaped colonial society in Minas Gerais, Brazil. According to Higgins, what did the circumstances of mining and the demographic realities of slavery mean for the ways in which slaves experienced their bondage and for how they sought relief or a change in their legal status?
According to Higgins’ Licentious Liberty, slavery shaped colonial society in Minas Gerais, Brazil, in a number of ways, most of which can be said to be positive, particularly in the early half of the 19th century when Minas Gerais became the Portuguese key focus. As a result of the presence of diamonds and gold, the colony became immensely profitable during the time when the Northeast sugar economy was experiencing most severe downturns. In responding to these conditions, resources and population deserted the place to move to Minas Gerais. From there hence forth, it became the Brazilian dominant area. The transfer of the visceral capital to Rio de Janerio from Bahia only resulted in official recognition to a process that society, demography, and economy had already made quite unequal. The colonialist tried to increase its presence in the area by engaging a number of activities. They refurbished and created new institutions so as to cope with the increasing demands of gold rush. Minas Gerais itself became the driver for transformation or growth, from where its various needs could be supplied.
2) In Licentious Liberty Higgins writes that to understand eighteenth-century Minas Gerais, Brazil we should “consider it in terms of the evolving status, autonomy, and influence of non-White women.” Examine how she develops this claim in the book. In doing so consider the various ways in which non-White women experienced the institution of slavery and social relations in Minas.
To answer the third question in essay form, please use two sources given below.
3) Examine how individual and collective identities were expressed and represented in colonial Latin America. In doing so consider how one’s wealth, appearance, place of birth, gender, legal status, and occupation contributed to how people forged and experienced their identities within colonial society.
Sources: Cuoto’s “Description of the Brotherhood of the Rosary,” Martin and Wasserman, 71-72
“Slaves Mining for Diamonds,” Martin and Wasserman, 72-74
“Madre Maria de San Jose on her decision to become a nun,” Martin and Wasserman, 59-62
“Sor Juana… reply to Sor Filotea,” in Martin Wasserman, 62-65 Higgins, Licentious Liberty
“Bandeirantes, Natives, and Indigenous Slavery” at
“Feitorias and Engenhos” at