Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography

Abdul Manap, Nazura, Anita Abdul Rahim, and Hossein Taji. 2015. “Cyberspace Identity Theft: The Conceptual Framework”. Mediterranean Journal Of Social Sciences. doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s3p595.

According to Manap, Rahim and Taji (2015), the advancement and globalization of technology in the present age has made it possible for crimes to occur via the Internet so much so that cyberspace identity theft has drawn the attention of the media, governments and the public. As such, this article explores cyberspace identity theft not only as a prevailing issue in terms of the number of cases but also in terms of its adverse effects. Despite the numerous studies conducted on identity theft, the authors emphasize the fact that cyberspace identity theft is intricate and this complex nature has rendered it difficult for researchers to have a vivid definition of cyberspace identity theft let along determine its limits. However, this article highlights key examples of cyberspace identity theft, for instance, financial identity theft, synthetic identity theft, criminal identity theft and medical identity theft, as well as, child identity theft, concealment and identity cloning. From the research conducted by Manap, Rahim and Taji (2015), they concluded that the methods utilized by cyberspace identity thieves to conduct online crime include pharming, vishing, hacking, using malware to gain access to individuals’ identifying information, phishing, smiShing, fake job advertisements and preying on people through social media platforms. In as much as this article fails to provide a definite definition of cyberspace identity theft, it is vital to my research since it explains the different motives for cyberspace identity theft, for example, using victims personal information to open novel bank accounts or take over existing ones, compromise credit card payment systems and compromise medical insurance and facilitate unauthorized immigration and terrorism. Nonetheless, cyberspace identity theft is not always motivated by criminal purposes. In certain situations, the perpetrators just seek fame or fun.Annotated Bibliography

Anderson, Keith B., Erik Durbin, and Michael A. Salinger. 2008. “Identity Theft”. Journal Of Economic Perspectives 22 (2): 171-192. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.22.2.171.

This article presents the idea that identity theft is facilitated by the nature of the contemporary payment systems which involves providing people with a line of credit for their personal use as long as the expenditure is backed up by data that link the individuals to specific accounts or credit histories. Anderson, Durbin and Salinger (2008) state that the economics of identity theft are intricate and vast research has to be done and certain policies implemented to curb this menace. A prominent policy or strategy suggested by the authors in this article concerns the person who bears the cost of identity theft or fraudulent transaction. The authors conclude that the person, merchant of financial intermediary who conducts the fraudulent transaction must bear the loss. In this regard, the rules or statutes governing who bears the cost will have a significant impact on the incentives to take actions that decrease the chances of identity theft. However, in as much as this policy suggested the authors is crucial to curbing identity theft from its origin, this article recognizes that the success of this strategy is contingent on the availability of other measures out in place by individuals, institutions and governments to prevent identity theft. Despite this limitation, this article is a vital contribution to my research as it highlights the fact that eradicating identity theft is difficult and complicated because it is tied to consumers’ personal information, market for consumer credit and payment systems. Therefore the challenge lies in the ability of governments to create and implement policies that strike the right balance by permitting access to information by individuals who have a legitimate use for it and not putting immense burden on legitimate uses while providing incentives people, companies and institutions to exercise care to prevent abuse of this information through identity theft and fraudulent transactions.Annotated Bibliography

Betz, Axton. 2012. “The Experiences Of Adult/Child Identity Theft Victims”. Graduate Theses And Dissertations. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=3764&context=etd.

As stated by Betz (2012) in this article, cases of child identity theft are rising each day, with incidents of child identity theft increasing more swiftly than other types of identity theft. Child identity theft can occur in the form of medical, financial and character-related identity theft, with parents being the most common perpetrators of such crimes. In terms of victims, there are two categories of child identity theft victims, that is, adult/child victims and child victims. Adult/child victims as described in this article are individuals who were victims of identity theft while under the age of eighteen years, but did not become aware of the crime until they were more than eighteen years of age. This research conducted by Betz (2012) explores the experiences of adult/child identity theft victims while utilizing a phenomenological approach and Bioecological Theory as a guide to data analysis. The experiences of adult/child identity theft victims explored in this article are vital to my research because of the physical, financial and emotional consequences that may result from this crime. Based on this understanding, the themes evident in this article are lack of support from families, law enforcement and other relevant agencies accorded to victims, adverse emotional impacts such as fear and anger and parents as perpetrators. The results of this research are crucial to my research since they can be utilized to inform the development of training and education programs for law enforcement and other salient agencies that deal with adult/child identity theft victims, as well as, the development of counseling service programs critical to providing espouse for adult/child identity theft victims. In addition, the findings of the study conducted by Betz (2012) in this article can also be utilized as source of information for impacting the development of public policy aimed at providing appropriate aid to adult/child identity theft victims.Annotated Bibliography

Copes, Heith, Kent R. Kerley, Rodney Huff, and John Kane. 2010. “Differentiating Identity Theft: An Exploratory Study Of Victims Using A National Victimization Survey”. Journal Of Criminal Justice 38 (5): 1045-1052. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.07.007.

According to Copes, Kerley, Huff and John Kane (2010), despite the immense attention accorded to identity theft, there is still confusion regarding how to best define and assess this crime. Recent efforts undertaken by researchers and institutions to assess the extent of identity theft through law enforcement files or victimization surveys have produced distinct results particularly in the types of crimes categorized as identity theft. Certain studies explored in this article consider credit card fraud as identity theft while others are of the opinion that it is not a form of identity theft. As such, this inconsistency in data collection on issues regarding identity theft has rendered it difficult to properly determine the extent of the crime. Nonetheless, this article utilizes data from the National Public Survey on White Collar Crime to evaluate the extent to which identity theft affects victim profiles including risky activities, demographic features and reporting decisions. More important, Copes, Kerley, Huff and John Kane (2010) compare the profiles of the victims of novel credit card fraud, existing credit card fraud and existing bank account fraud. Based on the findings of the study, the authors suggest that contemplating existing credit card fraud as an identity theft measure may obscure the fact that those who are young, black, low income and female victims are disproportionately victimized by existing bank account fraud which is considered the most damaging form of identity theft. This article is a vital contribution to my article since it emphasizes the need to target educational messages to the right victims, especially people from underprivileged backgrounds who are most affected by serious forms of identity theft.Annotated Bibliography

Finklea, Kristin. 2014. “Identity Theft: Trends And Issues”. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40599.pdf.

This article explores the trends and issues of identity theft in recent years. According to Finklea (2014), identity theft has remained the most prevalent consumer fraud complaint to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Notwithstanding, while identity theft complaints have generally risen in recent years since FTC commences recording identity theft complaints in 2000 and 2008, the number of complaints related to identity theft reduced between 2009 and 2010 before rising steadily since 2011. As revealed in this article, Congress in the United States continues to engage in discourse regarding the role of the federal government in mitigating the prospective impacts of identity theft after it occurs, preventing identity theft and its related crimes from occurring and providing the most efficient tools critical to investigating and prosecuting perpetrators of identity theft. A key issue that policymakers identified as a hindrance to the prevention of identity theft is the prevalence of personally identifiable information such as social security numbers in both the public and private sectors. As such, policymakers suggest that restricting the utilization of social security numbers on government-issued documents, for instance, Medicare identification cards and giving more regulatory authority to federal agencies to mitigate the prevalence of use of social security numbers in the private sector are crucial to eradicating identity theft. This article is valuable to my research as it evinces the steps taken by the federal government of the United States in curbing the menace of identity theft through policies and legislation. For instance, the President’s Identity Theft Task Force provided recommendations in 2007 to close gaps related to identity theft present in the federal criminal statutes. Moreover, Congress directed the FTC to enact an Identity Theft Red Flag Rule that required financial institutions and creditors with certain accounts to develop and implement identity theft prevention programs.Annotated Bibliography

Foley, Tom. 2017. “Medical Identity Theft: Problems And Prevention”. Healthcare IT News. http://www.healthcareitnews.com/sponsored-content/medical-identity-theft-problems-and-prevention.

According to Foley (2017), approximately nine million patient health records were breached in one hundred and sixty-four reported incidents in 2014. By March 2015, reported incidents had increased tenfold so much so that it is estimated that one in three health records were subject to fraud and compromise in 2016 alone. As indicated in this article, medical record can be physically stolen from medical facilities. Thus, it is vital to prevent other people obtaining personal data in this manner. However, based on the research conducted by Foley (2017), with the prevalence of health IT systems in many health institutions, focus on cybersecurity is not enough to prevent identity theft. A comprehensive security system around the personal data of individuals is extremely prominent in eliminating the increasing incidents of medial identity theft. Based on this understanding, health systems must incorporate a 360-degree risk mitigation strategy to not only cover but also prevent identity theft and any other potential security breaches as shown in this article. The security measures suggested in this article from the research conducted by Foley (2017) are crucial to my research, for instance, health institutions need to invest in proper health IT so as to ensure that the patient are not susceptible to the expensive risks of medical identity theft and the acquired technology must entail identity-proofing people across various healthcare settings which are not limited to the siloes storing the personal data. A good example of health IT system suggested in this article is one that has a unique health safety identifier (UHSI) as a first step in fortifying the IT security which will preserve data integrity and save the money of patients and health institutions.Annotated Bibliography

Hedayati, Ali. 2012. “An Analysis Of Identity Theft: Motives, Related Frauds, Techniques And Prevention”. Journal Of Law And Conflict Resolution 4 (1): 1-12. doi:10.5897/JLCR11.044.

This article is a conceptual review of the significant crimes resulting to identity theft and losses for people and businesses worldwide. In this regard, the article provides a review of the specific efficient strategies for sustainable development of prevention techniques that have been made available to businesses and individuals. Moreover, this article reviews existing literature and highlights the most effective ways of protecting people and businesses from identity theft since they stand to go through a protracted period of covering the damage which include obtaining good reputation and credit rating, as well as, securing their jobs. The study conducted by Hedayati (2012) evaluated the discordant types of frauds that are unique to identity theft. The author found that frauds that are unique to identity theft include financial fraud, medical fraud, mortgage fraud, identity fraud, tax fraud, resume fraud, as well as, organized crimes such as terrorism, money laundering and illegal immigration. In addition, the article outlines the various ways through which attack people and organizations by stealing their identities such as insider theft and mail theft that are considered physical forms of identity theft. People and organizations are exhorted in this article to know that in spite of the efficiencies of new technology in terms of facilitating payment and securing personal information, more than seventy percent of identity theft incidents are perpetrated by insiders. This point is vital to my research in that it cautions individuals and organizations from relying solely on technology to secure their data from identity theft since identity theft also occurs rampantly through insiders who can manipulate the technology through social engineering and phishing to steal personal information. Moreover, this article emphasizes the need for sensitization of people on matters regarding identity theft through organizational and public training since the criminals usually bypass security systems through human elements.Annotated Bibliography

Holm, Eric. 2014. “Social Networking And Identity Theft In The Digital Society”. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9d32/5968f70c593436efca6cfc32708a838cbf55.pdf.

This article by Holm (2014) explores the susceptibility of social network users to identity theft when they share their personal identification information online. According to Holm (2014), the sharing of details such as sex, address, age and other personal information like pictures can help identity theft perpetrators in establishing an identity. Normally identity theft perpetrators exploit social network users by focusing on their weaknesses in terms of loopholes or gaps which they exploit to gather information necessary to commit identity theft and consequently identity fraud using the personal identification information they amassed. As revealed in this article, there are mechanisms that people and organizations can utilize to prevent identity theft, sharing information on various social networking platforms is voluntary and this makes it difficult to exercise control. As such, this article presents explores prevailing literature from the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom and used this information to explain the relationship between identity theft and social networking. The author explains various mechanisms critical to improving the understanding of the relationship between identity theft and social networking aimed at preventing the former by focusing on the motives that drive people and organizations to share information on social networking platforms. This article contributes to my research in that it highlights the difficulty in preventing identity theft on social networking platforms since these platforms are designed to promote rather than prevent sharing of information by individuals and organizations. In addition, this article outlines the pervasive nature of identity theft and crime which renders the amelioration of risks difficult in this context.Annotated Bibliography

Hoofnagle, Chris Jay. 2007. “IDENTITY THEFT: MAKING THE KNOWN UNKNOWNS KNOWN”. Harvard Journal Of Law & Technology 21: 98-122. http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v21/21HarvJLTech097.pdf.http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v21/21HarvJLTech097.pdf.

According to Hoofnagle (2007), identity theft is contemplated to be the fastest growing white collar crime in the world. Yet those tasked with preventing identity theft, that is, policymakers and the pubic possess limited information regarding the forms, scope and extent of identity theft. This lack of adequate information prevents stakeholders from assessing the seriousness of the crime and providing appropriate responses. Misperceptions regarding identity theft have continued to exist and manifest because evaluations of identity theft have majorly relied on public surveys which are normally sponsored by financial institutions. As noted in this article, this approach is both over and under-inclusive in assessing or evaluating the prevalence or extent of identity theft. As such, this, Annotated Bibliography,article suggests an alternative solution that entails requiring financial institutions, that is, organizations possessing the most personal information to provide regular public reports regarding the occurrence and prevalence of identity theft. In order to make this information that is often hidden by financial institutions or reported with moderations known, these institutions should provide vivid and comprehensive reports detailing the forms of identity theft attempted and the products or services targeted, the number of identity theft incidents avoided or suffered, as well as, the quantity of loss avoided or suffered due to identity theft. These reports by financial institutions will go a long way in improving the public’s understanding of identity theft and make it possible for policymakers to formulate preventive measures that are coherent to the extent and methods of identity theft. This reporting is also crucial to my research since it formulates a market for the prevention of identity theft. This means that financial institutions will have the incentives to provide the safest products and the competition that ensues will result in the personal information of consumers being safer and enable them to make informed decisions regarding which institutions to utilize based on their preference for risk.Annotated Bibliography

Lindberg, Debra. 2011. “Prevention Of Identity Theft: A Review Of The Literature”. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=ccj_capstone.

As revealed in this article, technological advancements and increase in impersonal electronic transactions have resulted in a rise in identity theft. According to Lindberg (2011), there are various ways through which people can protect their identities and secure their personal information. However, many individuals do not apply these ways until they fall victims to identity theft. The advancement in technology has made it possible for people to use novel methods to access information and use it for purposes of identity theft or financial gain. It is for this reason that this articles emphasizes the need for individuals and organizations to be aware of such security threats and apply caution when providing their personal information to any person or online so as to protect themselves from the devastating effects of having their identities stolen. This report by Lindberg (2011) explores identity theft with the objective of providing a more vivid discernment of the definition of identity theft, characteristics of the offenders and victims, prevalence of identity theft and the different methods used by perpetrators to commit crimes related to identity theft. Moreover, this article discusses various strategies for preventing identity theft such as inter-agency collaboration and transaction awareness among others. This report by Lindberg (2011) is valuable to my research since the findings of the author’s study indicate that offenders are not only interested in financial gains through identity theft but also in hiding their identities so as to evade the law, obtain work permits, take part in federally funded social programs and participate in terrorist plots. However, preventing such crimes is hindered by the high cost of apprehending offenders and researching, especially when many organizations are implementing budget cuts. Moreover, the fact that victims normally do not realize that they have been victimized until late also makes it difficult to curb identity theft.Annotated Bibliography

Revere Bank. 2016. “Identity Theft: Detection, Recovery And Prevention – Revere Bank”. Revere Bank. https://www.reverebank.com/identity-theft-detection-recovery-and-prevention/.Annotated Bibliography

According to the research conducted by Revere Bank (2016), identity theft is the fastest growing crime in the United States with more than 11.7 million incidents being reported per year and people and companies losing more than $1.6 billion based on the data provided by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Given that there are no harbingers of identity theft decreasing or stopping, it is vital for people and organizations to protect themselves from becoming victims and have in policies that determine a course of action when identity theft occurs. This article evaluates the various warning signs of identity theft that people and organizations can look out for, immediate actions that they can undertake when they become victims of identity theft, as well as, ways through which they can protect themselves from identity theft. This article highlights an important point that relates to my research, that is, recovering from identity theft can be a protracted and time-consuming process and identity theft targets both people and their businesses, hence, it is vital to put in place measures that protect every aspect of an individual. The chosen method of protection against identity theft should be able to secure every personal account held by individuals, as well as, business accounts belonging to them so as to avoid falling victims to identity theft offenders.Annotated Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

References

Abdul Manap, Nazura, Anita Abdul Rahim, and Hossein Taji. 2015. “Cyberspace Identity Theft: The Conceptual Framework”. Mediterranean Journal Of Social Sciences. doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s3p595.

Anderson, Keith B., Erik Durbin, and Michael A. Salinger. 2008. “Identity Theft”. Journal Of Economic Perspectives 22 (2): 171-192. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.22.2.171.

Betz, Axton. 2012. “The Experiences Of Adult/Child Identity Theft Victims”. Graduate Theses And Dissertations. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=3764&context=etd.

Copes, Heith, Kent R. Kerley, Rodney Huff, and John Kane. 2010. “Differentiating Identity Theft: An Exploratory Study Of Victims Using A National Victimization Survey”. Journal Of Criminal Justice 38 (5): 1045-1052. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.07.007.

Finklea, Kristin. 2014. “Identity Theft: Trends And Issues”. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40599.pdf.

Foley, Tom. 2017. “Medical Identity Theft: Problems And Prevention”. Healthcare IT News. http://www.healthcareitnews.com/sponsored-content/medical-identity-theft-problems-and-prevention.

Hedayati, Ali. 2012. “An Analysis Of Identity Theft: Motives, Related Frauds, Techniques And Prevention”. Journal Of Law And Conflict Resolution 4 (1): 1-12. doi:10.5897/JLCR11.044.

Holm, Eric. 2014. “Social Networking And Identity Theft In The Digital Society”. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9d32/5968f70c593436efca6cfc32708a838cbf55.pdf.

Hoofnagle, Chris Jay. 2007. “IDENTITY THEFT: MAKING THE KNOWN UNKNOWNS KNOWN”. Harvard Journal Of Law & Technology 21: 98-122. http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v21/21HarvJLTech097.pdf.

Lindberg, Debra. 2011. “Prevention Of Identity Theft: A Review Of The Literature”. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=ccj_capstone.

Revere Bank. 2016. “Identity Theft: Detection, Recovery And Prevention – Revere Bank”. Revere Bank. https://www.reverebank.com/identity-theft-detection-recovery-and-prevention/.

Solove, Daniel J. 2003. “Identity Theft, Privacy, And The Architecture Of Vulnerability”. 54 Hastings L.J. 1227. https://scholarship.law.gwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=2085&context=faculty_publications.