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An acute inflammation can heal without producing in consequences or persists to chronic inflammation


  1.  The three pathogenic pathways that lead to chronic inflammation are textension of an acute inflammation, an acute inflammation whose healing becomes prolonged, or persistent exposure to causative agents.

An acute inflammation can heal without producing

 The principal cells of acute inflammation are:







 The principal cells of chronic inflammation are:



plasma cells


An acute inflammation can heal without producing

  1.  The formation of granuloma is caused by antigens that cause hypersensitivity (type 4) reaction that is cell-mediated. It may also be caused by antigens that persist around the area of inflammation. A granuloma is a unique form of chronic inflammation that is not preceded by an acute, PMN-mediated inflammation, The granulomatous reactions consist of or are formed from macrophages and T lymphocytes that accumulate at the site of injury and eventually aggregate to form nodules. The  cytokines produced by lymphocytes make the macrophages to transform into epithelioid cells,Which in turn may fuse to form multinucleated giant cells.


  1. Granulomatous inflammation has been associated with central caseous necrosis. PArt from causing cavities it also destroys tissues and erodes blood vessels especially where it persists for a long time.

An acute inflammation can heal without producing

  1.  Definition of  pathogenic terms: Serous inflammation, fibrinous inflammation, purulent inflammation, abscess, ulcer, wound, scar, and keloid

Serous inflammation refers to a mild form of inflammation that is characterized by the exudation of serum, the acellular clear fluid of the serum. It occurs in the early stages of mouth inflammation.

Fibrinous inflammation refers to the inflammation that characterized by an exudate that is rich in fibrin. It occurs during relatively severe inflammation. Compared to serous exudate, it does not resolve with easy. It is typical of bacterial infections  

Purulent inflammation s typically caused by pus-forming bacteria including streptococci and staphylococci. It can form a fistula, sinus, or an abscess.

An abscess refers to a localized collection of pus within an organization

Ulcer is a term used to refer to a defect that involves the epithelium. in some cases, the defect can extend to the deeply seated connective tissues.

A wound is a mucosal injury that heals readily when subjected to the appropriate conditions. The descendants of cycling stem cells located in in the basal layer replenish the superficial layers to achieve the healing.

A scar refers to a location in the body where the normal cells have been replaced with collagen and fibroblasts.

A keloid is a hypertrophic scar.

An acute inflammation can heal without producing



  1.  Describe type 1 hypersensitivity reaction and how it induces hay fever and asthma

An acute inflammation can heal without producing

Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction refers to an immediate reaction by the immune system that happens immediately after a person has been exposed to a given substance. It can occur in any part of the body including nose such as hay fever, and lungs and airways where it causes asthma. In both ahya fever and asthma are provoked by re-exposure to allergen, which is a specific antigen type.


  1.  Describe type ii hypersensitivity reaction and how it induces hemolytic anaemia, myasthenia gravis, and Graves’ disease

Type II hypersensitivity, which is also referred to as cytotoxic or tissue-specific hypersensitivity involve antibodies secreted by the immune systems that bind to the antigens. This takes place on the cell surface of the patient. Both extrinsic and intrinsic antigens can be recognized this way.   


Graves’ disease develop in females that have their autoantibodies bound to the thyroid-stimulating hormone, or TSH receptor on the surface of their thyroid’s follicular cells. This causes stimulation of cells resulting to excessive production of thyroid hormone. In case of Myasthenia gravis, the antibodies are bound to acetylcholine receptor. The process takes place on the surface of striated muscle cells. This in turn results to blockage of acetylcholine receptor, with the effect of obstruction of neurotransmitter binding. The result is progressive weakness of muscle that can eventually result in paralysis.

      An acute inflammation can heal without producing


  1. Describe type 3 hypersensitivity reaction and how it induces glomerulonephritis


Type III hypersensitivity is a result of accumulation of antigen-antibody complexes due to failure of innate immune cells to clear them, resulting to inflammatory response. In the case of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, an acute renal disease that occurs following infection of the upper respiratory disease, the streptococcal antigens that exists in the circulation could react with the antibodies yielding antigen-antibody complex. When these are deposited in the glomerular basement membrane, they may cause an inflammatory response that is complement-mediated.

  1.  Describe the cell mediated hypersensitivity reaction and how it induces granuloma formation

The cell mediated hypersensitivity involves T lymphocytes and macrophages. These two components coagulate at the location of injury and form granulomas. Complex antigens are responsible for initiating  the cell mediated hypersensitivity. These are consumed by macrophages where they are processed and later passed to T lymphocytes. The Helper T lymphocytes are also exposed to these antigens upon which the cytokines that originate from the APCs are activated, resulting in creation of immune memory. The cytokines influence, the macrophages are transformed into epithelioid cells. This results to increased production of varied inflammation mediators thereby promoting formation of granulomas.

  1. Describe the formation of transplants: homograft, isograft, autograft, and xenograft

An acute inflammation can heal without producing

In the clinical setting homograft, isograft, autograft, and xenograft are some of the forms of transplantation that are carried out. Homograft transplants carried out between individuals of the same species but who are not genetically identical.Isograft transplants involved tissue transplantation between individuals that are genetically identical and who belong to the same species. In autograft transplant, the patient serves as both the donor and the recipient. Finally, Xenografts involved issue transplantation between animals of different species. For example, are monkeys lever may be transplanted into a human being. However such transplants are poorly tolerated


  1.  Transplantation is extensively used in clinical practice as a lifesaving medical technique.For example, kidney transplant have been performed for decades enabling patients to continue living. individuals that have suffered from banks can undergo skin transplant that enables them to gain their composure. terminally damaged organs such as livers, heart, pancreases, and lungs can be replaced successfully with transplants. Transplantation is also used in medical settings to treat certain diseases. For example aplastic anemia, leukemia, and bone marrow failure are all treated through bone marrow transplantation.


Chapter 5


  1. Three important autosomal recessive disorders


sickle cell anemia

Tay-Sachs disease


  1.  Lysosomal storage disorders or LSDs referred to genetic diseases that arise as a result of defects in lysosomal proteins and/or and lysosomal-related proteins that causes dramatic dysfunction of lysosomes. they can result from mutation of a gene that encodes any of the lysosomal catalytic enzymes. The result is accumulation of molecules that are supposed to be degraded, which leads to a storage disorder. Lysosomal dysfunction can also be caused by abnormal function of lysosomal enzyme activators or defects in the lysosomal membrane proteins. LSDs is a genetic disorder that is progressively multisystemic.


  1. 3 important X-linked recessive disorders

Reg-green color blindness

Haemophilia A


  1.  The cardinal features of multifactorial inheritance include:

 Although not show a clear Mendelian pattern, it exhibits a familial aggregation

 It is caused by multiple genes but of low impact

 Both genes and the environment interact

 it does not have just one discrete genotype or phenotype association

It can be either additive or non-additive

There are two types of multifactorial inheritance disease:Congenital malformations does cleft palate and cleft lip and other common diseases of adult-onset such as hypertension, manic depression and ischemic heart disease.


  1.   Prenatal diagnosis is an element of genetic counseling that is used to diagnose many genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus while it is still in its early stages of development enabling abnormal fetuses to be aborted early in pregnancy to save parents from the suffering and the cost associated with caring for a child that cannot be cured. Ultrasonographic examination of both the placenta and the fetus is carried out to detect any malformations of the head, internal organs, or any abnormal development and positioning of the placenta. Chorionic villus biopsy performed during early pregnancy provides fetal cells. Chromosomal analysis of these cells can help to detect enzyme deficiency associated with single-gene defects. Additionally, prenatal diagnosis encompasses genetic analysis based on the techniques of molecular biology to determine mutant genes. This can take the form of amniotic fluid analysis or maternal blood analysis.  


  1.  Prematurity refers to birth that takes place before the completion of the 37 weeks of pregnancy.


Chapter 6


  1. Describe the fate of thrombi with special emphasis on their organisation recanalization, and embolization


The fate of thrombi is majorly influenced by their location, size, and the state of hemodynamics in the vessels. The majority of thrombi are lysed without producing any consequences. However, the thrombi that is larger in size get attached to the surface of the wall of endocardium or vessel through the action of adhesion molecules. With time however, ingrowth of inflammatory vessels and cells is stimulated by the thrombus resulting in a firmer anchorage. Eventually, the thrombus is dissolved by the granulation tissues’ inflammatory cells.  The collagenous fibrous tissue replaces the thrombus Thrombi that close up blood vessels may also be recanalized, allowing blood to once more flow through the lumen that had been rendered impassable. However, in case the thrombus is not dissolved, or organized and firmly attached, it can detach from the anchoring surface and give rise to emboli. 

An acute inflammation can heal without producing

  1. Describe the clinical consequences of venous and arterial thrombi

venous and arterial thrombi have clinical significance given that thrombotic occlusions or obstruction of cardiac and cerebral arteries are some of the major causes of death especially in the US. Although pulmonary emboli are linked to significant mortality, their prevalence is not accurately known given that pulmonary emboli is often ignore clinically.  


12.List five conditions that predispose an individual to arterial thrombi


Lack of exercise


Intake of high-fat diet

Excessive consumption of alcohol


  1. Define emboli and give five clinically important examples


Emboli refers to freely moving intravascular masses that are transported in the body from one anatomic site to another by blood. The emboli have clinical significance because they can obstruct  or interrupt blood supply to organs by closing up blood vessels, a situation referred to as embolism.The first clinically important examples are venous emboli that originated in veins and are carried by the venous circulation. They cause pulmonary embolism when they get lodged in the pulmonary artery or its branches. The third example is arterial emboli that originated in the left ventricle, aorta, atrium, or even any of the major arteries. They are a major cause of infarction that arises from closing up of peripheral arteries. The fourth example is paradoxical emboli that originated from the venous emboli that reach the arterial circulation. Finally, saddle embolus refers reference to massive thromboembolus that closes up the pulmonary artery or any of its main branches.


  1.  Infarction refers to an insufficiency of blood supply to region of tissue or an organ resulting in local death of tissue. Most of the infarcts are caused by thrombus or embolus that occlude the blood vessels that supply blood to the affected tissue or organ.


  1.  Shock is state of cellular and tissue hypoxia with blood.It is a life threatening condition that results from circulatory failure can be caused by several mechanisms. For instance,The failure of the heart to pump blood can cause cardiogenic shock. Hypovolemic shock results from loss of fluid from the circulation system while hypotonic shock is caused by loss of peripheral vascular tone. This condition results in over expansion of the peripheral vascular space that causes redistribution of fluid.


Chapter 7


  1. There are three causes of cardiomyopathy namely:

Dilated ventricles that makes the heart develop thinned or flabby myocardium that may result from alcohol or viral myocarditis.

Extensive thickening of the left ventricular myocardium that is caused by an autosomal dominant trait that is inherited results in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mutations of genes encoding myoglobin among other myocardial contractile proteins causes this type of cardiomyopathy.

 Infiltration of myocardium normal material such as amyloid restrict expansion of the heart to receive the incoming blood resulting in restrictive cardiomyopathy.

An acute inflammation can heal without producing

  1. The two surgical operations performed on the heart include artificial valve insertion and repair of occluded coronary arteries. These surgical operations are performed routinely and their complications is minimal given that low mortality rates have been recorded. Therefore, they have fuel serious complications
  2.  Arteritis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the walls medium-sized arteries caused by infiltrates of macrophages in this world causing total destruction of the alumina. Typically it affects elderly persons. Approximately 1% of people aged above 80 have this disease. in most cases it causes no serious complications, some patients suffer from visual problems due to ischemic changes that affect their eyes.


  1.  Varicose veins refer to superficial dilated veins that are enlarged and twisted. They may be caused by a number of factors with environment and genetic component. For instance, they may be common in people from families with a history of weak connective tissue. The disease may also be caused by environmental factors such as working in a profession that involve standing for long periods of time. It results in slow and turbulent blood flow that may cause clotting and eventual formation of thrombi. It may also cause thrombophlebitis or inflammation of the walls of the blood vessel.
  2.  Lymphangitis refers to an acute inflammatory disorder that affects the lymphatic vessels and its wall and is therefore restricted to the lymphatics. It is usually caused by pathogenic bacteria that invade the local lymphatics.


Chapter 8


  1. The symptoms that characterize bronchial asthma include heightened responsiveness of the bronchial tree to a wide range of stimuli. It may be accompanied by coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea. The pathological changes that are associated with bronchial asthma include chronic inflammation of bronchi. In the lumen, there is excess of mucus The mucosal infiltrates contain chronic inflammatory cells in addition to prominent eosinophils. The bronchial walls exhibit bronchial gland hyperplasia that is closely correlated with increased production of mucus. The number of smooth muscle cells increases, and indication of frequent bronchial spasms. Bronchial asthma is also a multifactorial disease with many causes. It can be precipitated by exposure to exogenous allergens or immune mechanisms.


  1.  Sarcoidosis refers to a multisystemic granulomatous disease whose etiology is unknown. Although it may affect any organ in the body, the lungs, liver and the lymph nodes particularly of the neck and thorax are the most affected. It infiltrates the lungs with T lymphocytes. Although its symptoms vary considerably, most patients suffering from the design feel tired and may develop a low grade fever. On the other hand, chronic immune-mediated lung diseases refers to a group of diseases caused by immune imbalance that may be mediated by allergens as well as other unknown causes. The inflammatory responses that occur damage and remodel the tissues, eventually causing airway hyperactivity. Apart  from destroying the architecture of the alveolar, it can can render the lung non-functional.


  1. Pneumoconiosis refers to an occupational disease of the lungs that is caused by dust inhalation in places of work such as agricultural fields or mines.


The three main causes of the disease are inhalation of


particulate matter can also cause the disease



  1.  The pathogenesis of adult respiratory distress syndrome is related to inflammatory injury that may occur in the lung epithelium and endothelium. The injury results in increases epithelial and lung vascular permeability. The edema fluid that is rich in protein enters the air sacs. The injury may become worse where there is ventilator-associated lung injury .  


  1.  The respiratory tract cancer may be caused by persistent exposure to radon, asbestos, and breathing in of second-hand smoke among the nonsmokers. There are also genetic predisposition that increases a person’s risk of developing the disease.  Smoking is another possible cause of this type of cancer. The public health significance of respiratory tract cancer arises from the enormous cost of treating the disease. In some cases, it is hard to treat it. Therefore, its prevention is of great significance.


  1. Based on the location, lung cancer can be categorised into adenocarcinoma that forms in epithelial tissue from the glandular structures. Its gross appearance is 40%. The squamous cell carcinoma with gross appearance of 30% develops in the squamous cells. The large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma, the small-cell carcinoma, and the carcinoids have  gross appearance of 10%, 15%, and 5% respectively. With respect to histologic findings, squamous cell, large-cell, and small-cell are central. On the other hand, adenocarcinoma tend to be dominant in the peripheral parts of the lungs. An acute inflammation can heal without producing