Part One Directions: Provide short answers of 200-350 words each for the following questions/statements. Include at least three scholarly resources beyond the course textbook in your response and listed as a reference at the bottom of the worksheet.
- What are the pharmacological and physiological effects of substance use?
Some of pharmacological effects include nervousness, loss of sleep and dieresis.
Diuresis manifests through the increased urine production as observed in the use of cocaine. Other effects as seen in the use of nicotine comprise of increased risks of heart attack due to high rate of blood pressure in the body. Similarly, substance use impairs the judgment of the users as seen in the alcohol users. For this reason, it is not advisable to drive the car under the influence of alcohol. Over dosage of alcohol leads to loss of consciousness as well as memory lapse according to (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014) argument. Furthermore, (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014) affirm that over indulgence of alcohol leads to vomiting and nausea as the early symptoms of intoxication. Besides, alcohol causes liver damage and heart disease.
Physiological effects of substance use comprise of constriction of blood vessel, increased body temperature and heart rate, dilated pupils as well as increased blood pressure. Identically, over dosage of substances such as cocaine leads to erratic and violent behaviors among the users. Also, users of substance end up experiencing muscle twitches, paranoia and vertigo. Correspondingly, substance use causes a feeling of restlessness, irritability and anxiety.
- Select two substances from the following and describe at least two pharmacological and physiological effects of each (200-350 words each). \
- Another DSM Substance Use Disorder of your choice
Hallucinogens refer to substance which distorts the perception of reality when used. They include LCD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), examine and morning glory seeds. Some of the pharmacological effects of hallucinogens include increased body temperature as well as sweating, and memory impairment. The study done by (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014)
, point out that hallucinogens cause dizziness and drowsiness among the users.
Physiological effects associated with hallucinogens include fatigue, muscle weakness, and body seizures (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014). Also, hallucinogens lead to dilated pupils, hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) as wel
l as depression and anxiety. Similarly, the users of hallucinogens experience impaired reaction time and dry mouth.
Use of cannabinoids distorts the user’s perception of time and surroundings as well as his coordination. Unfortunately, (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014)point out that some of the aforementioned changes are permanent. Furthermore, frequent usage of cannabinoids impairs both judgment and the alertness of the users. Likewise, users develop psychotic symptoms which consist of hallucinations delusions, and paranoia. Apparently, patients with early history schizophrenia experience a high rate of readmission as well as bipolar diseases.
Physiological effects-addiction Worksheet
Physiological effects of cannabinoids include increased risks of suffering acute cardiac. Furthermore, high levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood lead to hypoxia and ischemia in the body organs. Besides, reduced blood flow in the brain is associated with the usage of cannabinoids (Landheim, Pettersen, Skeie, & Brodahl, 2018). Also, marijuana which is one of the cannabinoids contributes towards dilation of blood vessels which causes othostatic hyotension.
- What is a process addiction? What is a substance use disorder? How are the two similar and how are they different? How would you establish a treatment relationship to work with a client with substance use disorder or process addiction?
The process of addiction refers to the uncontrollable nature of behaviors that make an individual to continue engaging in an activity despite of the involved negative effects on his health. For instance, an individual may find out that the addictive behavior has a psychological reward (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014). However, the person may wake up feeling guilt or remorseful because of the consequences emanating from the continued choice. On the other hand, the substance use disorder (SUD) refers to the condition in which in which the use of substance results to the significant impairment as well as distress among the users. Furthermore, SUD entails the overuse of drugs which eventually causes both physical and mental disorders to the users in the users. Likewise, (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014) argue that SUD manifests through a pattern of prolonged pathological use of medication, as well as non-medically drugs or toxins. The effects of SUD are brought out through adverse social consequences such as low performance at work as well as failing to meet the family obligations.
Apparently, both process addiction and SUD have some similarities which materialize through negative effects on the user’s health. For instance, addiction process with regard to alcohol leads to liver problems. On the same note, SUD are said to cause both physical and mental disorders. Also, both process addiction and SUD leads to social problems such as neglecting family responsibilities. Nevertheless, process addiction differs with SUD in the following ways: Process addiction makes the user to have uncontrollably desire of using the substance. Precisely, the user experiences withdrawal problems upon failing to administer the certain drug or substance. On the other hand, SUD involves the specific consequences accompanied by substance use such as physical and mental impairment. SUD is not necessarily due to addiction. Comparatively, treatment relationship with a client with SUD can only be achieved through demonstrating an understanding and acceptance of the client. Also, the relationship can be facilitated through helping the client to clarify the nature of his difficulty as well as indicating that you will be working with the client.
- Brief the history of substance abuse treatment in the United States over the past 100 years.
How did the early practices differ from what is being done today? Briefly describe the development of multidisciplinary teams in regards to the treatment of addictions.
The history of the U.S concerning treatment and substance abuse illustrates that alcohol was the first substance to be used in the early 19th century. Alcohol was taken as part of the American culture. Reports indicate that the average American was drinking close to four gallons in a day. Also, treatment of addiction started with the alcohol addiction. For instance, individuals who were considered addicted were forcefully housed in various facilities to suppress their addiction (Harris, Kaelen, & Nutt, 2014). Also, some were incarcerated in jails. However, the idea of using the jail as an option was somehow interesting because alcohol was being served in the American jails in the 19th century. Hospitals were also considered as an option but they were few in number. For this reason, almshouses and asylums used by mentally challenged people were used as the rehabilitation as well as treatment centers for alcoholics.
An extensive analysis shows some differences between the early and present practices of substance abuse treatment. For example, addicts were forcefully housed in different location in the early days. On contrary, people in the current society are taken to rehabilitation centers willingly after they have given their consent. While early practices preferred other alternatives of treating substance abuse such as locking up the users in rooms, contemporary society uses hospitals as treatment centers. On the same note, it is worth to note that substance disorders affect all facets of life. Therefore, it is necessary to design the treatment with the whole person in mind. For this reason, professionals had to come up with multidisciplinary teams with a variety of therapy choices to develop an exceptional care program for every patient.
Part Two Directions: It is widely understood that there is a biopsychosocial model of addiction. Within the biopsychosocial model, there are multiple psychological theories and biological theories. Select one psychological theory of addiction and one biological theory of addiction. Complete the table below by comparing and contrasting the selected biological and psychological theories of addiction.
|Theory and Brief Description||Similarities||Differences|
|[Insert psychological theory of addiction here]
|Both personality and genetic theory implies that people are prone to addiction through addictive personality profile. For instance, personality theory shows that substance users use drugs to fulfill certain objectives related to their personality profile. On the other hand, genetic theory suggests that substance users are driven by the urge to fulfill the objectives relating to their family history which concerns their personality profile.
|In personality theory, drug or substance dependence is attributed to the emotional liability. On the other hand, genetic theory suggests that addiction is majorly driven by the genetic and inheritability factors. For instance, children from the families with substance use history end up following their parents’ traits.
Also, genetic theory shows that genes influence externalized psychopath such as alcohol dependence, drug dependence and conduct disorder. On the other hand, personality theory implies that the urge to satisfy a certain objective concerning the personal profile leads to addiction. For example, certain individuals believe that using substances makes them to become good sportsmen and women as well as good rappers.
|[Insert biological theory of addiction here]Genetic theory||Genetic theory shows that the hereditary genetic components make the twins to engage in drug use. For instance, most of brothers living in the same households end up using substances because they have the same genes inherited from the parents who are drug addicts. On the same note, personality theory indicates that people who may share the same status or same activities end up using substances because they have to fulfill a common goal. For instance, two athletes may end up abusing a certain substance to perfect their skills.||As genetics theory attributes substance use to hereditary factors from the parents, personality theory focuses on the contribution of a particular objective towards substance use.|
Harris, R. C., Kaelen, M., & Nutt, D. (2014). How do hallucinogens work on the brain? Research Gate , 27 (19).
Landheim, A., Pettersen, H., Skeie, I., & Brodahl, M. (2018). Why Do Those With Long-Term Substance Use Disorders Stop Abusing Substances? A Qualitative Study. Research Gate: , 12, 1-8.