THE CULTURAL AND INTERCULTURAL IDENTITIES OF TRANSNATIONAL TEACHERS

  1. What are the research questions?

The research questions asked to the teachers were;

  • What are your perspectives on the connections between your transnational life experiences and the development about intercultural experience?
  • How do you define your inter cultural experience?
  • How do you approach the cultural issue with your English language learners?
  1. Where was the interview conducted?

It was conducted in the United States of America, at a small university in Chile and several Californian adult ESL programs.

  1. What was the sampling procedure?

The researcher spent time in the classes of three Chilean teachers and the classes of five Californian ESL instructors. The researcher however narrowed down the sample to two individuals; Paloma and Ruby for the sole reason that they had lived in the United States for the longest time living abroad and they also self-identified as being bicultural.

  1. How was the data collected?

Data was collected through observation in the classrooms and audio recording interviews.

  1. Where the questions used in the interview well-designed in terms of standards disused in the chapter?

Yes, the questions were well structured and relayed their intended purpose.

  1. How was the data analyzed? Does the researcher explain how they were analyzed and coded?

The data was analyzed through Thematic analysis of interview and classroom observations using NVivo (QSR International, 2006) qualitative data analysis software. Yes the researcher effectively explains that the coding of classroom data was done by class activity such as sharing opinions. The researcher coded data as cultural content when it concerned practices, perspectives and resulting products among people.

  1. How was the data presented?

The d

THE CULTURAL AND INTECULTURAL IDENTITIES OF TRANSNATIONAL TEACHERS

  1. What are the research questions?

The research questions asked to the teachers were;

  • What are your perspectives on the connections between your transnational life experiences and the development about intercultural experience?
  • How do you define your inter cultural experience?
  • How do you approach the cultural issue with your English language learners?
  1. Where was the interview conducted?

It was conducted in the United States of America, at a small university in Chile and several Californian adult ESL programs.

  1. What was the sampling procedure?

The researcher spent time in the classes of three Chilean teachers and the classes of five Californian ESL instructors. The researcher however narrowed down the sample to two individuals; Paloma and Ruby for the sole reason that they had lived in the United States for the longest time living abroad and they also self-identified as being bicultural.

  1. How was the data collected?

Data was collected through observation in the classrooms and audio recording interviews.

  1. Where the questions used in the interview well-designed in terms of standards disused in the chapter?

Yes, the questions were well structured and relayed their intended purpose.

  1. How was the data analyzed? Does the researcher explain how they were analyzed and coded?

The data was analyzed through Thematic analysis of interview and classroom observations using NVivo (QSR International, 2006) qualitative data analysis software. Yes the researcher effectively explains that the coding of classroom data was done by class activity such as sharing opinions. The researcher coded data as cultural content when it concerned practices, perspectives and resulting products among people.

  1. How was the data presented?

The data was presented through operationalization of a definition of culture that should be applied that could be applied to different types of data across research contexts.

  1. What conclusions were drawn? Are they justified in light of the data presented?

The researcher concludes that despite Paloma and Ruby’s impressive skills, she cannot contend that they have found all round solutions to the problem of intercultural pedagogy. They are justified because the data presented reflects the same.

  1. Are the pedagogical implications of the study? Are they warranted in light of the study findings?

Yes, there are pedagogical implications. The study encourages TESOL educators to require student reflection and student sharing their own cultural experiences. The study also requires students to be explicit in interpreting their experiences to the learning environment. They are warranted because the study findings aim at finding a connection between the teachers experience and the class.

 

TEACHERS’ SOCIAL CULTURAL IDENTITIES AND PRACTICES

  1. What are the research questions?
  • How are teachers sociocultural identities negotiated and transformed over time?
  • What factors are associated with those changes?
  1. Where was the interview conducted?

The study was conducted in EFL classrooms in Japan at a private institution known as KCCI, a Language Center in Minato.

  1. What was the sampling procedure?

Four teachers were selected on the basis of their reputation as good teachers and their willingness to participate fully in the study: two Japanese females (Miki and Kimiko) and two Americans, a male and a female (Danny and Carol). All four were in their late 20s to early 30s and had roughly 1.5 years of teaching experience at KCCI at the outset of the study.

  1. How was the data collected?
  • Questionnaires for teachers and students at the start and the end of the semester
  • Journal entries by teachers every week about their classes
  • Video and audio taping of classroom observations
  • Field notes
  • Audiotaped interviews
  • Review of instructional materials
  • Participant- observer research journal
  1. Where the questions used in the interview well-designed in terms of standards disused in the chapter?

The questions were well-designed as they covered the scope of what the study intended to achieve.

  1. How was the data analyzed? Does the researcher explain how they were analyzed and coded?

Data was analyzed in a recursive and reflexive manner through insight and feedback from the interviews and observations. The data was coded for recurrence of themes associated with teacher perceptions of sociocultural and professional aspect.

  1. How was the data presented?

The data was presented in tables and discussion form.

  1. What conclusions were drawn? Are they justified in light of the data presented?

EFL teachers’ role as the go between for culture cannot simply be defined according to whether they intentionally or explicitly teach cultural facts or whether they are NSs of English or Japanese or citizens of the U.S. or Japanese cultures. Manifestations and constructions in each classroom represented many elements, created by teachers, students, and others and shaped to a large extent by other factors, such as institutional goals and course textbooks.

They are justified because it’s true that teachers shape their students in various ways social culturally despite their still being influence of students to teachers.

  1. Are the pedagogical implications of the study? Are they warranted in light of the study findings?

The study aided the socializing students into new cultural practices. It also helps students to develop new connections through intercultural and social interactions.

 

RETICENCE IN CLASS AND ONLINE

  1. What are the research questions?
  • What are the students’ experiences with CLT in an undergraduate ESL class?
  • How do their previous backgrounds relate to their class participation in the ESL class?
  1. Where was the interview conducted?

The interview was conducted in the United States.

  1. What was the sampling procedure?

Two participants were chosen from Korea and Japan backgrounds on the basis of class observation and tutor recommendation.

  1. How was the data collected?

Audio taped interviews, four in number, each running for one hour.

  1. Where the questions used in the interview well-designed in terms of standards disused in the chapter?

The questions were in line with the idea the study aimed to bring to light.

  1. How was the data analyzed? Does the researcher explain how they were analyzed and coded?

After each audio session, the tape was transcribed to search for emergent themes. Observation field notes were used for triangulation of findings to lay out the scope of study. Themes enabled further studies.

  1. How was the data presented?

It was presented in terms of tables and snapshots of the ESL class.

 

 

 

  1. What conclusions were drawn? Are they justified in light of the data presented?

The students’ infrequent participation was attributed to linguistic and sociocultural factors. Student individuality was revealed by locating them in their cultural contexts. They are justified because the participant Noriko tends to think first before talking while Seungwon tends to talk less rather than too much.

 

  1. Are the pedagogical implications of the study? Are they warranted in light of the study findings?

Students’ effective domains should be considered by instructors in the class and their cultural advancements. The students are stressed out by predetermined factors such as a lecturer that does not understand them or on-line interactions that make them tense and unable to effectively perform as per set standards. CLT classes should provide students the opportunity to revisit concepts. The students’ approach to learning will effectively improve them as individuals. They are warranted because the two study participants effectively expressed their struggles with the learning experience.