Health and Safety Management


  1. Examine the facts behind the Casselton North Dakota train derailment in 2013; identify the main factors that cause the accident. What preventive measures should be taken to ensure that the accident would not happen again?

Casselton North Dakota train derailment in 2013.

  • The spillage of nearly 500000 gallons of crude oil due to the collision of two BNSF trains in Dakota resulted from break down of the cars axle of one train because of manufacturing problem.
  • The crash caused damage of around $7.2 million, fortunately there was no death reported and about 1560 people were evacuated from the Casselton train crash.Casselton North Dakota train derailment in 2013
  • Safety standards that are high must be ensured on tankers since freight trains link a number of cars carrying liquids that are flammable.
  • DTO-III track cars that has been in service as late as 1950’s, are punctured easily thus can cause spillage of fuel leading to explosion.
  • DOT-117 tank cars should be adopted by pipeline and hazardous materials safety administration since they have thicker shells and other safety features.
  • A broken axle from the train was found with manufacturing defects at the 2002 slot of production from standard steel which had two other failures.
  • A safety recommendation was issued by NTSB for railroads to test second hand axles for defects. Manufacturers should take strict measures for testing axle quality.Casselton North Dakota train derailment in 2013
  1. Explain the hazard mechanisms that have led to the ban on the basements in service stations?
  • There is danger since the gasoline vapor density is superior to that of air. Gasoline vapor which is denser is likely to displace the air and gather in the crypts of the service station, creating hazardous concentrations.
  1. What is the difference between Class I liquids and flammable liquids?
  • There is no difference. Class I liquids is also called flammable liquids.
  1. A worker exposure to noise is given plant is measured, resulting in the following readings for various time periods during 8-hour shift?
  • PEL: Permissible Exposure limits,

Data given;-

Timings                     Total Time worked      Exposure         permissible limits         dosage

8am-9am                     1 hour                          86dBA                        13.92                           0.079

9am-11am                   2 hours                        84dBA                        18.37                           0.108

11am-12noon              1 hour                          80dBA                        27.85                           0.035

12noon-1pm                1 hour                          101dBA          1.74                             0.574

1pm-4pm                     3 hours                        75dBA                        1.64                             0.095

Total Time = 8 hours

Value as follows;

% dosage undergone= (time worked ÷ permissible limit)*100

Where, permissible limit= 8 hours *2.

Therefore;- permissible limit in slot 8am-9am;-

=8*290-86/5,  =8*24/5      =13.92 hours.

  1. Whether maximum PEL’s have been exceeded

Total dosage= sum dosage *100

= (0.071+0.108+0.035+0.574+0.095) = 0.837*100 =83.7dBa.

Occupation safety & health act states that permissible limit should be 90Dba in 8hour shift. Therefore PEL has not been exceeded since its 83.7dBA which is less than 90dBA.

  1. In slot 9am-11am the PEL is 108Dba it has been exceeded since it is greater than 90dBA.
  2. Yes, employers are supposed to provide hearing protections to the employees, according to OSHA regulation in case PEL is exceeded.
  3. Yes, employees should wear hearing protectors during 9am-11am
  4. In the morning, this is because in the morning times the PEL are exceeded therefore the engineering control should be advised to cut the noise in the morning.
  5. What does hierarchy of control mean? Define the following controls, and provide an example for each one. Please rank them from most effective to least effective.
  • Administrative control

Administrative control refers to the changes in work procedure such as written rules, policies, supervision, training and schedule with the aim of reducing the frequency, duration and severity of exposure to chemicals that are hazardous or rather direction, situation and exercise of authority over subordinate and other organizations in respect to administration and support which includes organization of service force, equipment’s and control of resources, unit logistics, personal management, individual and unit training, mobilization, demobilization, readiness, discipline, and some matters which are not included in other organizations.

  • Engineering control

It reduces exposure to chemical or physical hazards through the use of engineered machinery. In health and safety context it is referred to as physical modification to a process or installation of further equipment’s with the aim of releasing the contaminants into the work place. Evident from the definition above engineering control is wide in application. The selected control depends on the process type, nature of contaminant source and routs of exposure. In reality no single engineering control in isolation is successful; control is the combination of equipment’s and ways of working.

  • Personal protective equipment

It refers to the reduction of employee exposure to hazards when administrative control and engineering control are ineffective to reduce the risks to acceptable levels. PPE includes, protective clothes, gloves, helmets, goggles and any other equipment designed to protect the body from injuries or infections. The hazards may include heat, chemical, electrical, physical, biohazards, and airborne particle matter. They can be worn during sports, job related occupational health and safety, and other recreation activities. Protective clothing is applied in traditional clothing and protective gears are applied in to items such as shields, masks, guards etc.

  • Substitution

Hazard control hierarchy is a used system in industries to reduce or eliminate exposure to hazards. In hierarchy the hazard control is in decreasing effectiveness.

  • Elimination

System used in industries to minimize or eliminate exposure to hazards is referred to as hierarchy of hazard is a system that is accepted widely and promoted by numerous safety organizations. The concept is taught to managers in industry.

  1. What are the ostensible and ulterior purposes of the workers’ compensation system? Why the experts liken cost of accidents to an iceberg? Please explain.
  • Ostensible determination of worker compensation is to guard the worker by providing statutory compensation level to be paid by the employer for injuries or accidents acquired by the worker. While ulterior purpose refers to the resistance from other liability of the employer, except where carelessness is verified.Casselton North Dakota train derailment in 2013