Please write your answers in the spaces provided. NOTE: This entire exam is worth 20% of your final grade. When you are finished, please submit it back to the link where you downloaded this portion of the exam. Thank you. Good luck.


  1. Knowledge and Comprehension. This portion of the test will require you to define or distinguish key terms discussed in the class and is worth 40% of the grade.


Part A. Directions: Distinguish between the following terms by a) defining each AND b) explaining its significance to the field of testing. Note: If you do not answer the second portion of each question, the entire question will be counted incorrect. (2.5 points per item)


  1. Formative Test

A-A formative test refers to a test that is conducted with the objective of measuring the student’s techniques that have been learned in the classroom with the aim of offering support to them in the form of feedbacks.

B- Its significance in the field of testing is that it is a channel through which the ability of a student in learning is improved. This is accomplished through the use of the comments that act as guidelines to be followed by the students.

  1. Dictation

A-Dictation is a learning process that requires the students to listen to some words from the teacher and write what they can hear. It is a spelling and vocabulary test.

B-its significance in the field of testing is that it measures the grammatical competencies of a student and therefore informs the teacher on areas where the student should improve to boost his performance in the language.


  1. Achievement Test
  • An achievement test is a test that is done by the students at the conclusion of a semester. The test involves a measurement of the student’s understanding of the chapters that were covered in the classroom in that particular semester.


b- The significance of the achievement tests is that they enable the instructors to have the understanding of whether the students have attained the objectives of the discipline or not.

  1. Construct
  • Any theory that is involved in the explanation of a phenomenon that has been observed in our views is known as a construct.


b- The significance of a construct is that it offers an explanation for a particular performance and therefore forms a platform that can be applied by the teachers in the determination of areas of improvement by the students.


  1. Maximum Performance
  • Maximum performance refers to the determination of the developed abilities of a student.
  • Its significance is that it gives an insight that the students can demonstrate high levels of performance.



  1. Diagnostic

A-Diagnostic refers to a procedure that is applied to the identification of the challenges in a language

  • Its significance is that it helps the instructors to determine the areas that are hard to comprehend by the students and therefore assist them in coming up with the solutions for the obstacles.
  1. Proficiency Test
  • A proficiency test is a test that is universally accepted and involves a measurement of one’s competencies in a language. For example, TOEFL
  • It is used to determine the mastery of the language which then enables the heads of the schools to have the understanding of students who deserve to study abroad.



  1. Criterion-Referenced

A-Criterion-referenced refers to the way in which one interprets a description of a particular performance that was indicated. It highlights the fraction of the answers answered correctly by the student.

B-its significance is that it is a channel that describes the understanding and the skills that can be demonstrated by a particular student. Thus, it’s essential in instruction planning.




  1. Placement Test
  • A placement test is a test that is done by the students before joining a particular study program.
  • Its significance is that it is used in the evaluation of the students’ knowledge in instructional sequence and therefore enables teachers to establish which instructional method is the most useful to the students.



  1. Integrative Testing

A-This is a test that is conducted with the assumption that separation of language skills cannot be done.


B-Its significance is that it measures the entire competence of a language.




Part B. Directions: Distinguish between the following terms. Again, Distinguish between the following terms by a) defining each AND b) explaining their significance to the field of testing. Note: If you do not answer the second portion of each question, the entire question will be counted incorrect.


  1. Direct vs. Indirect Testing

A-Direct test entails the involvement of the students in the performance of the target examination while indirect testing involves the students engaging in tasks that are closely related.

B-The importance of a direct test is that they give a teacher an opportunity to assess the student’s performance directly while the significance of an indirect test is that a teacher can measure several skills of the students.





  1. Objective vs. Subjective Testing Items
  • Objective testing items involve the advance inclusion of items for which the correct responses may be obtained. The views of the scorer do not affect the scores of an objective test. On the other hand, a subjective test is characterized by having a longer response. For instance, an essay test
  • The importance of an objective test is its reliability and the ability to measure factual knowledge while the subjective test gives room for several responses by giving the students an opportunity to solve some problems.


  1. Speed vs. Power Testing
  • Speed testing measures performance that is not affected by the velocity of the response. Easy items are in the first line, and the problematic items appear in the last line. On the other hand, speed test is involved in the measurement of the quantity of items that a student can complete in unit time.
  • Power test is vital because it is applied in the measurement of a student’s critical thinking in the analyzation, discussion and the solving of problems while speed testing measures the students’ ability to respond quickly.


  1. Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales

A-Nominal refers to the numerical values of a measurement while ordinal refers to the attributes of a measurement. Interval refers to the distance that is available between two or more attributes and has a meaning. Ratio refers to an absolute zero and has a meaning

B-the significance of these scales is that they help an instructor in the decision making when deciding on the most appropriate statistical analysis method to apply.






  1. Application This portion of the test will require you not only to define or distinguish the concepts below. BUT ALSO requires that you provide a practical example of each. (worth 20%)


Directions: Answer each as thoroughly yet succinct as possible.


  1. Explain the difference between Evaluation, Measurement, and Testing AND provide an example of each.

Evaluation is defined as the procedure through which the curriculum is analyzed with the objective of determining whether it meets the intended goals. For instance, if an instructor figures out that a student has a challenge in the application of future tenses, the teacher may elect to give the students some drills to ensure that he masters the aspect of the tenses.  Measurement and testing are less general than evaluation. Measurement refers to the assignment of the number to the results of a test. Therefore, measurement has a limitation in that it is only limited to the quantitative description. For instance, the number of correct answers for each student. On the other hand, testing refers to the administration of the examinations under specified conditions. For example, the final exams







  1. Explain the importance of reliability to language testing AND list as many things as you can think of that might be done to increase the reliability of a classroom assessment and briefly explain how they would increase reliability.


If there is a consistency of the results for a particular test for the same group of students, then this is referred to as the reliability of a test. Reliability of a test is significant because it indicates that there were no problems in the test. Test developers or teachers can improve the reliability of a test through examining the same group of the students using the same test and without altering of the examination conditions. If the results lack consistency, then it is an indication that the test cannot be reliable. To that end, the examiners may have to set a new test. For example, a test developer may set a test that is intended to measure the mastery of grammar among a group of students who are viewed as being on the same level ground regarding their performance. If one group performs exemplary well as compared to the others, then this is a signal that there was a problem with the test. Similarly, another example arises when similar results are obtained after the examination has repeatedly been done by one group of the students. This is a demonstration that the test can be relied upon.




  1. Discuss the elements that make up good instructional objectives.

For good instructional objectives to be termed as good they need to have the following elements; they should put more emphasis on the attainment of knowledge, ability and the skills that the discipline intends to equip the learners with. The instructional objectives should conform to the goals or the purposes of the lessons.





  1. Discuss the importance of Table of Specifications in language content testing. Create an example to support your discussions (a simple version of a two-way chart is needed

In the development of classroom tests and the assessments, it is significant to develop a list of specifications. This is because the procedure entails the preparation of particular instructional goals that outline the content of the course and the preparation of the two way chart. In other words, it indicates how a test appears and how it will trigger some responses from the students. Thus, it is relevant for use in a summative test because it can cover vast areas.



Table of specifications present perfect tense: